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What are organic molecules?
Molecules containing carbon - its ability to bond to itself between molecules is useful for creating large structures.
What are the four main types of organic molecules?
- Nucleic acids
What elements are found in carbohydrates?
What compounds are carbohydrates?
What are the 3 major size groups of carbohydrates.
- Monosaccharides - 1 molecule. "Simple sugars" 3 to 7 carbons
- Disaccharides - 2 molecules joined "Simple sugars"
- Polysaccharides - hundreds to thousands of molecules forming chains. Water insoluble, can be structural.
What is the main polysaccharide in the body?
Glycogen. The storage form of energy and composed of chains of glucose.
What are the main polysaccharides produced by plants?
Starches for energy storage and cellulose for structure.
What are the main elements of lipids?
- Oxygen (less than in carbs)
What does hydrophobic mean?
Repelled by water. some molecule are hydrophobic, at least in part. Phospholipids contain a neutral head and hydrophobic tail.
What are the 4 main types of lipid in the body?
- Fatty acids
- Fat soluble vitamins
What is a saturated fatty acid?
A fatty acid chain where there are no double bonds between carbon atoms. The carbon atoms are thus fully "saturated" by hydrogen atoms.
What is an unsaturated fatty acid?
- A fatty acid chain where there is at least one double bond between carbon atoms.
- Monounsaturated - only one double bond
- Polyunsaturated - two or more double bonds
What are triglycerides?
Molecules of glycerol with 3 fatty acid chains attached. If they are solid at room temperature they are considered fats, if they are liquid at room temperature they are considered oils.
What are phospholipids?
Phospholipids are molecules simliar to triglycerides except that they only have 2 fatty acids attach to the glycerol and a phosphate molecule is also attached.
What are steroids?
Steroids are lipid molecules composed of four carbon atom rings forming a chain, with other appendage molecules attached.
What are the main elements that make up proteins?
What are some functions of protein in the body?
It has many functions including structural, the formation of enzymes and antibodies and the contraction of muscle.
What is a peptide, dipeptide, tripeptide and polypeptide?
A peptide is a chain of amino acids.
- Dipeptide = 2
- Tripeptide = 3
- Polypeptide = 50-thousands
What are amino acids? How many are there?
Amino acids consist of an amine group, carboxyl group and side chain all joined around a central carbon atom. The composition of the side chain determine the identity of the acid. The acids combine to form peptides and thus proteins and there are 20 in total.
What are the four structural levels of proteins?
- Primary - composition of aminoacids
- Secondary - the folds made on the protein
- Tertiary - protein's 3D shape
- Quaternary - the combination of peptides
What is denaturation?
The change in a protein's shape caused usually by a change in pH or temperature.
What are nucleic acids? What are they made of?
DNA and RNA long chains composed of nucleotides, capable of storing information.
What are nucleotides composed of?
How does RNA differ from DNA?
DNA makes up the genome in organisms and RNA takes on other information processing roles. While DNA has a thymine nucleotide this is replaced by Uracil in RNA.
What are the 3 components of a nucleotide?
- 5 carbon sugar
- Nitrogenous base
- Phosphate group
How do nucleotides pair up in the body?
Nucleotides form long chains that are used to store information. In DNA, two chains will join to create a double helix. In this chain, Adenine will join to Thymine and Guanine will join to Cytosine. In RNA Adenine will join to Uracil.
What is ATP?
ATP is life's way of storing energy for use. The molecule is composed of an adenine and ribose molecule forming adenisine, onto which 3 phosphate groups are attached.
How is energy stored and released in ATP?
Energy is stored in the bonds between the second and third phosphate groups on the ATP molecule. The separation of the third phosphate from the rest of the molecule releases energy which is utilised in metabolism.