Medic 14 A&P Chapter 8

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  1. arachne
    spider; arachnoid membrane
  2. axon
  3. cortex
    rind;neural cortex
  4. dura
    hard; dura matter
  5. vagus
    wandering; vagus nerve
  6. Objective:
    Distinguish the two major anatomical divisions of the nervous system and their general functions. pp. 260-261
  7. Two Major divisions of the nervous system
    • CNS
    • PNS
  8. Functions of the nervous system
    • Monitors the internal and external enviroments
    • integrates sensory information
    • coordinates voluntary and involuntary responses of other organ systems
  9. Functions of the cell are preformed by cells called ______ and protected by surrounding cells collectively termed_______.
    Neurons and Neuroglia
  10. CNS
    • Brain ans spinal cord
    • integrates and coordinates the processing of sensory data and transmission of motor commands.
    • seat of higher functioning( intelligence, emotion and memory)
  11. PNS
    • All communication of the CNS and the rest of the body occurs in the PNS.
    • The PNS inculdes all neural tissue outside the CNS
  12. Divisons of the PNS
    • afferent division-To the CNS from the PNS
    • efferent division-From the CNS to the PNS
  13. Afferent division
    Sensory information detected outside the Nervous system by Receptors and then transmitted to the afferent division of the PNS to the CNS where the info is processed.
  14. Efferent divison
    • Somatic nervous system(SNS)
    • Autonomic nervous system (ANS)

    CNS sends commands to tissue by means of the PNS through effectors.
  15. SNS
    Provides control over skeletal muscle contractions.
  16. ANS
    • AKA the visceral motor system
    • which provides automatic regulation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glandular secretions, and adipose tissue
    • ANS includes: Sympathic division and a Parasympathic divison
  17. Sympathic Divison
    • Fight or flight
    • Accelerates heart rate
  18. Parasympathic divison
    • feed or breed
    • slows down heart rate
  19. Objective:
    Distinguish between neurons and neuroglia on basis of their structure and functions. pp. 261-266
  20. Neural tissue contains two kinds of cells
    • Neurons 
    • Neuroglia
  21. Neurons
    • Are the basic unit of the nervous system.
    • All functions involve communication of neurons with one another and with other cells
  22. Neuroglia
    • Regulate environment around the Neurons
    • Provide supporting framework for neural tissue
    • Act as phagocytes 
    • They have the ability to divide.
    • They far outnumber neurons.
  23. Neurons
  24. A representative neuron has:
    • A cell body
    • Several branches of dendrites( receive signals)
    • An elongate axon (carries signals toward)
    • one of more synaptic terminals
  25. Most neurons lack _____ with the exception of the ______ and in the ___________
    Centrioles ( they cannot preform mitosis)

    Olfactory (smell)and the hippocampus(portion of brain involved with memory storage)
  26. Cell body also contains  organelles that provide energy and synthesize organic compounds
    • Numerous mitochondria
    • RER give cytoplasm a coarse and grainy appearance.
  27. Clusters of RER and free ribosomes are known as ______ and give a gray color to areas that contain neuron cell bodies.
    Nissl bodies
  28. Cell membrane of the dendrites and cell body are sensitive to ______,_______, or ________ _________
    Chemical, mechanical, or electrical stimulation
  29. ____ ______ travels along the axon
    Action potential
  30. Branches of the axon are called _________
  31. At the end of each branch _____ _______ are found
    Synaptic terminals
  32. Synaptic terminal is part of a ________, which is a site where a neuron communicates with another cell.
  33. Structural classifications of Neurons
    • Multipolar
    • Unipolar
    • Bipolar
  34. Multipolar neuron
    • Two or more dendrites and a signle axon
    • Most common in the CNS
    • All motor neurons that control skeletal muscles are multipolar
  35. Unipolar Neuron
    • Dendrits and axon are continuous 
    • Cell body off to one side
    • Action potential begins at base of dendrites
    • The rest of the process is considered an axon
    • They are most sensory neurons of the PNS
  36. Bipolar neurons
    • Have two processes- one dendrite and one axon
    • cell body between them
    • they are rare but occur in the speicial sense organs where they relay info about sight,smell or hearing from receptor cells to other neurons
  37. Functional classification of neurons
    • Sensory neurons 
    • Motor neurons
    • Interneurons
  38. Sensory neurons
    • Form the Afferent division of the PNS
    • Receive info from sensory receptors  that monitor the external and internal enviroment
    • Then relay info to the CNS
  39. Types of sensory neurons
    • Somatic sensory receptors: External and proprioceptors
    • Visceral receptors( internal
  40. Somatic sensory receptors
    detect info about the outside world or our physical position  within it.
  41. External receptors
    Provide info about the external environment  in the form of touch,temp,pressure,sight,smell, and hearing
  42. proprioceptors
    monitor the position and movement of skeletal muscles and joints
  43. Visceral (internal receptors)
    • Monitor  the activities of digestive,respiratory, cardiovascular, urinary, and reproductive systems
    • provide sensations of taste,deep pressure and pain.
  44. Motor neurons
    • make up the efferent division
    • Carry order from the CNS to the tissues, organs, and organ systems.
    • Targets effectors
    • Somatic and visceral
  45. Somatic motor neurons
    Innervate skeletal muscles
  46. Visceral motor neurons
    • innervate all other effectors
    • cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, glands, and adipose tissue.
  47. Interneurons
    • associaton neurons
    • located in brain ans spinal cord
    • responsible for the distribution of sensory information. 
    • Higher function
    • memory,planning and learning.
  48. Neuroglia
    • Astrocytes
    • oligodendrocytes
    • microglia
    • ependymal
    • PNS:
    • satellete cells
    • Schwann cells
  49. Astrocytes
    • are the largest
    • they secrete chemicals vital to maintain the blood brain barrior
    • sructural framework for CNS neurons  and repairs damaged neural tissues
  50. Oligodendrocytes
    • Insulates axons with myelin
    • gaps between adjacent cell processes are called nodes or nodes of fanvier
    • Areas covered in myelin are internodes
    • axons without mylin are unmyelinated 
    • high in lipds
    • consitute white matter of CNS
  51. Migroglia
    • smallest and rarest
    • phaygocytic dervied by WBC
    • migrageted to CNS as the nervous system is formed
  52. Ependymal
    • line the central canal of the spinal cord and the chambers of the brain. where CSF is held
    • Ependyma(epithelial tissue that  lines this and creates CSF
  53. Sattalite cells
    surround and support neuron cell bodies in the PNS
  54. Schwann cells
    • cover every axon outside the body
    • outer surface is called neurilemma
    • they can only myelinate one segment of a single axon.
  55. PNS
    • neuron cell bodies are located in the ganglia
    • white matter of the pns contains axons bundled together with nerves
  56. CNS
    • neural cortex- thick layer of grey matter that covers the brain
    • White matter is contained in bundles called tracts
    • tracts in the spinal cord from collums
    • pathways sensory ascending motor desending
  57. Objective:
    Discuss the events that generate action potentials in the membranes of nerve cells(pp 266-270)
  58. Characteristic feature of a living cells is a _____ ____ _____
    Polarized cell membrane
  59. An undisturbed cell has a cell membrane that is _________- because it separates an excess of positive charges from the outside from an excess of negative charges on the inside.
  60. When positive and negative charges  are held apart, a _____ ______ is said to exist between them.
    potential difference
  61. Unit of measurement for a potential difference is the ____
  62. Because charges are separated by a cell membrane, the potential difference is called a __________ or _____________
    Membrane potential or transmembrane potential
  63. The membrane potential of an undisturbed cell is called its _____ _________. The ________ potential of a neuron is ____
    • Resting potential 
    • -70 mV
  64. In - 70 mV the minus symbol means
    that inside of the cell membrane contains an excess of negative charges as compared with the outside.
  65. extratracellular fluid contains relatively high concentrations of _______ and _______, whereas the intracellular fluid contains high concentrations of ________ and _________.
    • Sodium ions (Na+), Chloride ions (Cl-)
    • Potassium ions (K+), Negatively charged proteins (Pr-)
  66. Potassium ions will diffuse outside of a cell  _____ then a sodium ions enter the cell
  67. K+ are ________ by the overall positive charge of the surface of the cell membrane, whereas Na+ is ________ to the negatively charged inner membrane surface
    repelled, attracted
  68. To maintain the potential difference across the cell membrane, active processes are needed both to counter the combined chemical and electrical forces that drive_________ ions into the cell and maintain the ________ concentration gradient
    Sodium, potassium
  69. The carrier protein that stabilizes the resting potential is
    the sodium potassium pump
  70. The ion pump exchanges three intracellular___ ___ for two extracellular ___ ____
    Na+ions , K+ions
  71. Any stimulus that alters membrane permeability to Na+ or K+ or alters the activity of the exchange pump will disturb the _____ _____ of a cell
    resting potential
  72. Examples of stimuli that can affect membrane potential include exposure to _____ _____,____ ____,___ __ _______ or shifts in the _____ ___ ________.
    specific chemicals, mechanical pressure, changes in temperature, or shifts in the extracellular ion concentrations.
  73. Stimulus ______ gated ion channels that are_____ when the cell membrane is at its resting potential
    opens, closed
  74. As the number of positively charged ions on the inner surface of the cell membrane increases, the membrane potential shifts toward 0mV. A shift in this direction is call the _____________ of the membrane.
  75. A stimulus that opens the gated K+ channels will shift the membrane potential away from 0 mV, because additional K+ will leave the cell. Such a change which may take the membrane potential from -70 mV to -80 mV is called ____________
  76. _______ ________ are changes in the membrane potential that cannot spread far from the site of stimulation, and thereby affects only a limited portion of the cell membrane
    Graded potentials
  77. an _____ _______ is a propagated change in the membrane potential of the entire cell membrane
    action potential
  78. Only skeletal muscle fibers and the axons of neurons have _______ membranes that _______ action potentials.
    excitable, conduct
  79. Action potentials are generated by the opening and closing of gated Na+ and K+ channels in response to a ________ ________
    Graded potential (local depolarization)
  80. An action potential will not appear unless the membrane depolarizes sufficently to a level know as the_________
  81. Every stimulus that brings the membrane to threshold will generate an identical action potential.This is called the __ __ ____ _____
    All of none principle
  82. From the moment the volate- regulated Na+ channels open at threshold untill repolarization( the return to the resting potential), the membrane cannont respond normally to further stimulation. This called the ______ ______
    refractory period
  83. The ______ ______ depolarizes adjacent portions of the membrane and when threshold is reached, action potentials occur at these locations. This form of action potential transmission is called _____ ________
    Local Current, continuous propagation
  84. between nodes, myelin sheath  block the flow of ions across the membrane. as a result continueous propagation cannot occur. action potential will jump node to node;rather then in small steps. this process is called ____ ______
    Salatory propagation
  85. Generation of an action potential
    depolarization to threshold
  86. Generation of an action potential
    activation of voltage regulated Na+ channels and rapid depolarization
  87. Generation of an action potential
    inactivation of sodum channels and activation of voltage regulated K+ channels
  88. Generation of an action potential
    The return to normal permeability and resting state
  89. Objective:
    Explain the mechanism of nerve impulse transmission at the syapse (pp. 270-274
  90. ______ _______ are electrical events, that moves information from one location to another in the form of action potentials along axons.
    Nerve impulses
  91. At the end of the axon, the arrival of the action potential  results in the transfer of informatuon to another neuron or effector cell. The transfer of information occurs through the release of chemicals called __________from the synaptic terminal
  92. Synapses netween a neuron and other cell type are called ______ _______
    neuroeffector junctions
  93. Neuron communicates with a  muscule cell at a _______ ______ and at a secretory cell through a _________ _________
    neuromuscular junction, nueroglandular junction
  94. Communication between nurons and other cells occur in ____ ___ _______ across a synapse
    only one direction
  95. The impulse passes from the synaptic knob of the presynaptic neuron to the post synaptic neuron.The opposing cell membranes are separated by a narrow space called the _______ _____
    Synaptic cleft
  96. Each synaptic terminal contains ______, ______ _____, and __
    Mitochondria, synaptic vesicles, ER
  97. When stimulated the synaptic vesicles release __________ that diffuse across the synaptic cleft and bind to receptors on the ________ _______
    Neurotrasmitters, post synaptic membrane
  98. Sequence of events of typical at acholenergic synapse 1
    An arrivaing action potential depolarizes the synaptic knob and presynaptic membrane
  99. Sequence of events of typical at acholenergic synapse 2
    Ca2+ enters the synaptic cleft triggering excytosis of ACh
  100. Sequence of events of typical at acholenergic synapse 3
    ACh binds to receptors and depolarizes the postsynaptic membrane
  101. Sequence of events of typical at acholenergic synapse 4
    ACh is removed by AChE
  102. Neurotransmitters
    • NE
    • dopamine
    • gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA)
    • seritonin
    • nitric oxide
    • carbon monoxide
  103. ______ ____ is a group of interconnected interneurons with specific funtions. Each _____ _____ has a limited number of input and output destinations
    Neuronal Pool
  104. Neurons and neuronal pools communicate in several pattens or neural circuits . the two simplest patterns are _____ and ______-
    divergence, convergence
  105. Divergence
    information spreads from one neuron to several neurons from one neuronal pool to multiple neuronal pools
  106. Convergence
    several neurons synapse on a single post synaptic neuron. convergence makes possible both voluntary and involuntary control of some body processes.
  107. Objective:
    Describe the three meningeal lavyers that surround the CNS (pp. 274-276)
  108. the _________ are three layers of specialized membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord,provide physical stability and shock absorption to CNS tissue.Blood vessels branching in these layers deliver needed oxygen and nutrients.
  109. At the foremen magnum of the skull, the ______ ________ covering the brain are continuous with the _____ ________ that surround the spinal cord.
    Cranial meninges, Spinal meninges.
  110. Three meningeal layers are the ____ ____, _______, and the ____ ________.
    Dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater
  111. Dura mater
    • Tough Fiberous
    • forms the outermost covering of the CNS.
    • Dura mater that covers the brain has two laters
    • The outer layer is fused with the perioststum of the skull
    • the two layers are separated by slender gap that contains tissue fluids and blood vessels
    • Forms folded membranous sheets called dural folds
    • Dural folds act like a seat belt for the brain
    • In the spinal cord, the outer layer is fused to bone.
    • Between the dura mater of the spinal cord and the walls of the vertebral canal lies the epidural space,which contains blood vessels ,adipose tissue and loose connective tissue
  112. Injecting anesthetic into the epidural space produces a temporary sensory and nerve paralysis known as an _______ ______
    epidural block
  113. The Arachnoid
    • Narrow subdural space separates the inner surface of the dura mater from the arachnoid.
    • Contains small quantity of lymphatic fluid, that reduces fiction between opposing surfaces.
    • Is an epithelial layer
    • Is a layer of squamous cells
    • Deep to this layer lies the subarachnoid space which contains delicate web of collagen and elastic fibers.
    • Subarachnoid space is filled with CSF
  114. Pia mater
    • Separated from the arachoid space by the subarachnoid space
    • Pia Mater is bound firmly to the underlying neural tissue.
    • The blood vessels that service the brain and spinal cord run alond the surface of this layer,within the subarachnoid space..
    • Pia mater is highly vascular
  115. Objective:
    Discuss the structure and functions of the spinal cord. (pp. 278-282)
  116. Spinal cord decreases in diameter as it extends toward the sacral region. The two exceptions are regions concerned with ______ and ____ ______ of the limbs.
    Sensory, motor control
  117. The ______ _______ supplies nerves to the shoulder girdles and upper limbs, and the ______ _________ provides innervation to the pelvis and lower limbs.
    Cervical enlargement, Lumbar enlargement
  118. The spinal cord has a ______ _______, which is a narrow internal passageway filled with CSF.
    Central canal
  119. The posterior surface of the spinal cord has a shallow groove, ______ ___ ______, and the anterior surface has a deeper grove, the ______ _______ _______.
    • posterior median sulcus
    • anterior median fissure
  120. The entire spinal cord consists of __ Segments.
  121. Every spinal segment has an associated pair of ______ _____ _________, which contain the cells bodies of sensory neurons.
    Dorsal root ganglia
  122. The dorsal roots, which contain the axons of these neurons, bring ______ ______ to the spinal cord.
    sensory information
  123. A pair of _____ ____ contains the axons of the CNS motor neurons that control muscles and glands
    Ventral roots
  124. On either side, dorsal and ventral roots leave the vertebral column between adjacent vertebrae at the ______ ________
    Intervertebral foramen
  125. Distal to each dorsal root ganglion, ________(dorsal) and _____(ventral) are bound together into a single spinal nerve.
    sensory, motor
  126. All spinal nerves are classified as _____ nerves because they contain sensory and motor fibers.
  127. Cauda equina
    spinal cords thread like extensions
  128. The ______ _____ ______and the ______ ______ _______ mark the divison between left and right sides of the spinal cord.
    Anterior median fissure, posterior median sulcus
  129. Grey matter is dominated by cell bodies of neurons and glial cells. It forms a rough H around the ______ _____ _____.
    Narrow central canal
  130. Projections of grey matter , that extend outward into the while mater  are called _____.
  131. _______ ____ _____ contain sensory nuclei
    Posterior grey horns
  132. _______ ____ _____ are involved in motor control of skeletal muscles
    Anterior gray horns.
  133. ______ _____ ______ contain viseral motor neurons that contol smooth muscle,cardiac muscle, and glands
    Lateral gray horns
  134. The ____ ___________ anterior and posterior of the central canal  interconnect the horns on each side of the spinal cord.
    gray commissures
  135. White matter on each side can be divided into three ______ or ________. Anterior,posterier, and lateral.
    regions, columns
  136. Each column contains tracts whose axons carry sensory data or motor commands._____ tracts carry sensory or motor signals between segments of the spinal cord, and the ______ tracts connect the  spinal cord to the brain
    small, larger
  137. _______ ______ carry sensory info toward the brain, and ________ ________ convey motor commands into the spinal cord.
    ascending, desending
  138. Objective: Name the major regions of the brain and describe their functions. (pp. 282-284)
  139. Brain contains roughly __ _______ neurons organised into hundreds of neural pools.
    25 Billion
  140. The adult brain has six major regions.
    • cerebrum
    • diencephalon
    • midbrain
    • pons
    • medulla oblongata
    • cerebellum
  141. Cerebrum
    • can be divided into paired cerebral hemispheres 
    • Conscious thoughts ,sensations, intellectual functions, memory storage and retrevial and complex movements originate in the Cerebrum.
  142. diencephalon
    • connected to cerebrum
    • contains thalamus,hypo thalamus,epithalamus
  143. Largest portion of the diencephalon is the ____________
    thalamus, which contains relay and processing centers  for sensory information
  144. Hypothalamus
    • contains centers involved with emotions,autonomic function and hormone production.
    • connects to pituitary gland
  145. Epithalmus contains the _____ gland
    pineal gland
  146. Brainstem contains three major regions of the brain:
    midbrain, pons , and medulla oblongatta
  147. The brain stem contains importnat processing centers and relay stations for info heading to or from the ________ or __________
    cerebrum or cerebellum
  148. The midbrain or the _____________ process visual and auditory info and generate involuntary motor responses. Also contains centers that help maintain consciousness.
  149. The _____ of the brain connects the cerebellum to the brain stem.____ is also connected tothe medulla oblongata. ____ refers to a bridge
  150. the _______ ________, is the segment of the brain that is attached to the spinal cord
    medulla oblongatta
  151. the meduall oblongatta relays sensory information to the ________ and other brain stem centers; it also contains major centers that regulate autonomic function  such as,_____ _____, ________, and _______ ______
    thalamus, blood pressure, respiration, digestive activites
  152. Objective: 
    Locate the motor,sensory, and association areas of the cerebral cortex and discuss their functions (pp.284-294)
  153. The brain has a central passageway that expands to form four chambers called _________.
  154. Each cerebral hemisphere contains a large _______ _________
    lateral ventricle
  155. Lateral ventricles do not directly connect, but an opening in the __________ _________ that allows each of them to communiate with the thried ventricle in the ___________
    intraventricular foramen, diencephalon
  156. The midbrain has a slender canal known as the  __________ ________(_______ _______), which connects the third ventricle with the fourth ventricle in the pons and the upper portion of the medulla oblongata.
    mesencephalic aqueduct, cerebral aqueduct
  157. The fourth ventricle narrows and becomes continuous with the ______ ______ of the _____ _____.
    Central canal, spinal cord
  158. ___ surrounds the exposed surfaces of the CNS and cushions delicate neural structures.
    CSF (cerebriospinal fluid)
  159. CSF transports _________, ______ _______, and _____ ______.
    nutrients, chemical messengers, and waste products
  160. Except at the choroid plexus, where CSF is produced the epiendymal lining is ______ _______, and CSF is in constant chemical communication with the interstitial fluid of the CNS.
    freely permeable
  161. CSF is produced at the _______ _______
    Choroid plexus, a network of permeable cappilaries that extends into each of the four ventricles.
  162. CSF is produced at 500 ml a day, total volume of CSF at any moment is 150ml. Entire volume of CSF is replaced every _ hours roughly
  163. arachnoid granulations,which project into the superior sagittal sinur,a large cerebral vein,Diffusion across the arachnoid granulations returns excess ___ to the venous circulation
  164. The ____________ is the largest portion of the brain, and is the site where conscious thought and intellectual thought origionate.
  165. Much of the cerebrum is involved in receiving _________ sensory info and exerting voluntary or invouluntary control over _______ motor neurons.
  166. Cerebrum contains:
    Grey and white matter
  167. Grey matter is found in the superficial layer of the _______ _______  and in the deeper basal nuclei.
    Neural cortex
  168. The central white matter, lies beneath the _______ ______ and surrounds the _______ _______.
    Neural cortex, basal nuclei
  169. Thick blanket of neural cortex known as the ______ _____ covers the __________ and _______ surfaces of the cerebrum
    Cerebral cortex, superior and lateral
  170. Cerebral cortex forms a series or elevated ridges or ____, separated by shallow depressions, called____ or by deeper groooves called ________
  171. _____ increase the surface area of the cerebrum for neurons
  172. Cerebral hemisphere are separated bu the ____________ _______
    longitudinal fissure
  173. Extending latterally from the longitudinal fissure is a depp grove, _____ _____
    central sulcus
  174. Each hemisphere is divided into _____
  175. _____ _____ is bordered inferiorly by the _____ sulcus
  176. Cortex inferior to the lateral sulcus is the ______ lobe
  177. The _______ lobe extends between the central sulcus and the parieto-occipital sulcus.Then the _______ lobe remains.
    parietal, occipital
  178. The central sulcus separates the ______ and _____ portions  of the cortex
    motor and sensory
  179. ______ gyrus of the frontal lobe forms the anterior margin of the central sulcus and its surface is the _______ motor cortex
    precentral , primary

    Neurons of the primary motor cortex control voluntary movements bu controlling somatic motor neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord
  180. the __________ gyrus of the parietal lobe froms the posterior margin of the central sulcus, and its surface contains the _________ sensory cortex.
    postcentral, Primary

    Primary sensory cortex recieve somatic sensor info from touch pressure pain and temp recpetors
  181. _______ _________ of the occipital love recieves ______ info
    visual cortex
  182. ________ cortex of the frontal love receives taste sensations
  183. ________ and ________ cortex of the temporal lobe receive info about _____ and _____
    • auditory and olfactory
    • hearing and smell
  184. The sensory and motor regions of the cortex are connected to nearby ________ ____, regions that interpret incoming date or coordinate a motor response
    association areas
  185. _________ _____ association area monitors activity in the primary sensory cortex
    somatic sensory
  186. _____ _____ association area or ________ cortex is responsible for coordination learned movements
    somatic motor, premotor cortex
  187. axons of different lengths interconnect gyru within a single cerebral hemisphere and link two hemispheres across the _____ _______.
    corpus callosum
  188. Integrative centers receive information from many different________ ______.
    association areas
  189. integrative centers are found in both hemispheres but many are ___________
  190. The general interpretive area
    • Wernicke's area receives info from all the sensory association areas.
    • plays essential role in your personality by integrating sensory info and corrdinating acess to complex visual and auditory memories.
    • usually in the left hemisphere
  191. Speech center
    • Broca's area. 
    • this center lies along the edge of premotor cortex in the same hemisphere as the premotor cortex. 
    • regulates patten of breahting and vocalization required for normal speech.
  192. prefrontal cortex
    • frontal lobe
    • coordinates info from the association areas of the entire cortex.
    • It interprets ongoing events and predicts future situations or consequences
    • damage to this area leads to problems estimating time relationships between events
  193. Left hemisphere has been called the ________ hemisphere or the __________ hemisphere
    dorminant, categorical
  194. _____ cerebral hemisphere analyzes sensory info and relates the body to the sensory enviroment
  195. EEG electrocephalogram
    is a printed record of electrial activity in the brain
  196. Fact memories
    are specific bits of info
  197. skill memories
    related to programmed behavior
  198. Short term memories
    or primary memories do not last ling but while they persist the information can be recalled immediately.
  199. Long term memories
    remain for much longer periods, sometimes whole lifetimes.
  200. Conversion of short term memories to long term memories is called _______ ________.
    memory consolidation
  201. Most long term memories are stored in the _______ ____
    cerebral cortex
  202. __________ refers to loss of memory fro disease or trauma
  203. While your cerebral cortex is constantly active, other centers of your cerebrum,diencephalon and brain stem are processing sensory info and issuing motor commands at a ___________ _____.
    subconcious level
  204. Many activities outside out concious thought are directed by the ______ _____ or ________ _____
    basal nuclei, cerebral nuclei
  205. Basal nuclei are masses of _____ ______ that lie beneath the lateral ventricles and within the central white matter of each cerebral hemisphere.
    gray matter
  206. _____ ______ has a massive head and slender ,curving trail that follows the curve of the lateral ventricle.
    Caudate nucleus
  207. _______ _______ is inferior to the head of the caudate nucleus, which consists of globus pallidus and a lateral putamen. AKA Corpus stratum.
    lentifrom nucleus
  208. inferior to the lentiform nuclei is the __________ ____. It is a component of the limbic system
    amygdaloid body
  209. basal nuclei funcion in the subconcious control of _____ _____ ____ and _________ of learned movement patterns.
    skeletal muscle tone, and coordination
  210. basal nuclei provide _____ and _____ once voluntary movements have been initiated.
    pattern and rhythm
  211. Limbic system includes the _________ ____,______ ___ ____,________ and tracts along the border between the cerebrum and diencephalon.
    olfactory cortex, several basal nuclei, gyri
  212. Functions of the lymbic system include:
    • Establishing emotional states and related behavior drives
    • linking the conscious intellectual functions of the cerebral cortex with the unconscious and autonomic functions of the brain stem
    • long term memory storage and retrieval.
  213. amygaloid bodies play a role in the geulation of _____ _____, in the control of the ____ __ _____ response , and in linking emotions with specific memories
    heart rate, fight or flight
  214. limbic system includes hypothalmic centers that control...
    • emotional states such as rage,fear, and sexual arousal
    • reflex movements
  215. Diecephalon
    • Is the switching and relay centersr that intergrate conscious and uncious senssory information and motor commands
    • it surrounds the third ventricle
  216. Diecephalon consists of
    • epithalamus
    • thalamus
    • hypothalamus
  217. Epithalamus
    • lies superior to the third ventricle where it forms the roof of the diecephalon
    • anterior potion contains extensiva area of choroid plexus
    • posterior contains the pineal gland
    • pineal gland excretes melationin and regulates day night cycles
  218. Thalamus
    • left and right thalamus are separated by the third ventricle
    • final relay point for all ascending sensory info other then olfactory 
    • acts as a filter and passes on to the primary sensory cortex a filtered portion of sensory info
    • thalamus plays role in coordination of voluntary and involuntary motor commands
  219. Hypothalamus
    • inferior to the third ventricle
    • contains important control and integrative centers
    • functions include
    • subconcious control of the skeletal muscle contractions associated with rage,pleaseure pain etc...
    • adjusting autonomic cetners in the pon and medulla oblongatta(heart rate, blood pressure , respiration, and digestion
    • coordinates nervous system and endocrine ysstem
    • variety of hormones ADH and oxytocin
    • behavioral drives
    • coordinating voluntary and invioluntary functions
    • body temp
    • daily cycles of activity
  220. Midbrain
    • bundles of ascenind and descending nerves fibers
    • two pairs of sensory nerves that process visual and auditory sensations
    • N III  IV
  221. Superior colliculi
    • control the reflex of cmomenment of the eyes and head in response to visual stimuli
    • like a blinding flash of light
  222. inferior colliculi
    head neck and trunk in response to auditory stimuli
  223. ______ _______ are amde up of descending bundles of nerve fibers on the ventrolateral surface of the mid brain
    cerebral peduncles
  224. reticular formation
    • regulates many involuntary functions
    • contains the RAS (reticular activating system)
  225. RAS system
    • raticular activating system
    • output of thos system affects the activity of the cerebral cortex
    • when the RAS is inactive so are we
    • when the RAS is stimulated we are alert
  226. pons
    • N V- VIII
    • bridge
    • rate and pattern of respirations
  227. cerebellum
    • automatic processing centers
    • adjusts postural muscles of body to maintain balacnce
    • program and fine tuning movements controlled by the concious and unconcious thought
  228. Ataxia
    disturbance in balance
  229. Medulla oblonggata
    • connects brain to with the spinal cord
    • all communication between brain and spinal cord involves ascending and descending tracts that pass through 
    • N VIII- XII
    • portion of the RAS
    • relflex centers recieve inputs from cranial nerves ,Cerebral cortex, and the brain stem and their output controls the activity of the cardiovascular and respirtory system
    • cardiovasuclar centers adjust heart rate and strength of cardiac contractins and blood flow though peripheral tissues
  230. Cardiovascular center is subdivieded into
    • cardiac centers that regulates heart rate
    • vasometer center that controls peripheral blood flow
  231. respiratory rythmicity centers
    set the pace of respiratory meomvents and activity is adjusted by the respirtatory centers of the pons
  232. Objective: Identify the cranial nerves and relate each pair of cranial nerves to its principal function(PP.294-297)
    See laminated flash cards
  233. Objective:
    Relate the distribution pattern of spinal nerves to the regions they innervate (PP. 297-298)
  234. __ pairs of spinal nerves are grouped according to the region of the vertebral column originate
  235. _ Cervical, __ Thoracic,_ Lumbar,_Sacral,_ cocygeal
  236. _________ is a specific region of the body that each pair of spinal nerves monitor.
  237. Compound nerve  trucks originate at networks called____ _____
    nerve plexuses
  238. 4 major nerve plexuses
    • Cervical
    • brachial
    • lumbar
    • sacral
  239. Cervical plexuses
    innervates muscles of neck and extends into the thoracic cavity to control diaphragm
  240. Brachial plexus
    innervates the shoulder girdle and upper limb
  241. lumbar plexus and sacral plexuses are known as and innervate
    • lumbosacral plexus 
    • pelvic girdle and lower limb
  242. Peripheral nerve palsies aka________ ________ are characterized by
    peripheral neuropathies,regional losses of sensory and motor function
  243. Objective:Describe the components of a reflex arc (pp.298-303)
  244. A ____ is an automatic motor response to a specific stimulus
  245. wiring of a single reflex is an____ ___
    Reflex arc
  246. Steps involved in a reflex arc 1
    Arrival of stimulus and activation of receptor
  247. Steps involved in a reflex arc 2
    Activation of a sensory neuron
  248. Steps involved in a reflex arc 3
    Info processed in CNS
  249. Steps involved in a reflex arc 4
    Activation of a motor neuron
  250. Steps involved in a reflex arc 5
    Response by effector
  251. Monosynaptic reflex
    is the simplest reflex, a sensory neuron synapes directly on a motor neuron, which preforms the info processing function
  252. Stretch reflex provides automatic regulation of ______ _____ ____
    skeletal muscle length
  253. sensory receptors in the stretch reflex are called
    muscle spindles
  254. Polysynaptic reflexes
    have a longer dely due to more synapses involved, can control several muscle groups simultaneously
  255. Withdrawl reflexes
    move stimulated pars of the body away for the source of stimulation
  256. babinski sign
    • stroking the sole of the foor
    • fanning of toes
    • adults curling of toes(plantar reflex)
  257. Objective:Identify the principal sensory and motor pathways.(PP.303-305)
  258. The major sensory(ascending) and motor (descending) tracts of the spinal cords are named with regard to
    the destination of the axons
  259. tract begins with spino- starts at the ______ ____ and ends at the _____. Therefore carries ________ ____
    spinal cord, brain, sensory info
  260. ends in -spinal
    Starts in the higher commands and ends at the spinal cord and sends motor commands
  261. Posterior column pathway
    sends fine touch,pressure, vibration, and proprioceptive sensations to the cerebral cortex
  262. motor pathways
    CNS sends motor commands distributed by the SNS and ANS (efferent divison of PNS)
  263. Three motor pathways control skeletal muscles
    corticospinal pathway, medial pathway, and lateral pathway.
  264. Cortiospinal pathway controls
  265. lateral and medial
    indirect subconcious control
  266. cortiospinal pathway is AKA as
    pyramidal system= cross over
  267. Objective: compare and contrast the functions and structures of the sympathic and parasympathic nervous system (PP.306-313)
  268. ANS motor neurons in the CNS are known as
    Preganglionic neurons
  269. Preganglionic neurons ,axons are called
    preganglionic fibers
  270. Preganglionic fibers synapse on
    ganglionic neurons
  271. The axons of ganglionic neurons are
    Post ganglionic fibers------> innervate cardiac muscle, smooth muscle,glands and adipose
  272. Divisions of ANS
    • Sympathetic -fight or flight
    • Parasympathetic- feed and breed
  273. Preganglionic fibers from the thoracic and lumbar spinal segments synapse ganglia near the spinal cord and these are part of the __________ division of the ANS
  274. preganglionic fibers that come from the brain and the sacral spinal segments synapse on neurons of terminal ganglia located near the target organ or intramural ganglia embedded within the tissues of viseral organs. Are part of
  275. All preganglionic fibers are _______: they release ___ at their synaptic terminals and are always excitatory.
    • Choloinergic 
    • ACh
  276. Postganglionic PS fibers are  choloinergic but the effects are _________ or _________ ,depending on the nature of the target cell receptor
    excitatory or inhibitory
  277. Most PostGang Sympath fibers release __________ or __. Neurons that release __ are called adrenergic. The effects of __ are usually excitatory
    norepinepherine  NE
  278. two types of sympathic ganglia
    • paired sympathic chain ganglia
    • unpaird collateral ganglia
  279. paired Symph chain ganglina
    • either side of vertebral column 
    • neurons control effectors in the body wall and inside the thoratic cavity
  280. Unpaired collateral ganglia
    • anterior to the vertebral column
    • contain ganglionic neruons that innervates tissues and organs in the abdminopelvic cavity
  281. adrenal medullae
    • center of each adrenal gland is known as adrenal medulla, modified ganlion
    • very short axons
    • realease NE and E
  282. monamine oxidase(MAO)
    breakdown NE
  283. Sympathic receptors are
    adrenergic and dopamine receptors
  284. Adrenergic receptors are broken down into
    • a1
    • a2
    • b1
    • b2
  285. a1
    cause peripheral constriction,mild bronchoconstriction, stimulation of metabolism
  286. a2
    • found on neuroeffector junctions a2 are inhibitory
    • prevent over release of NE in the synapse
  287. b1
    causes increase in heart rate,cardiac contractile force, and cardiac automaticity and conduction
  288. b2
    cause vasodilation and bronchodilation
  289. dopaminergic receptors
    vasodilate renal, coronary, and cerebral arteries
  290. PNS has two colinergic receptors
    • nicotinic
    • muscarinic
    • both specific to ACh
  291. nicotinic
    • found in all autonomic ganglic both PS and Symph
    • found on neuromuscular juncitons and initiate muscle contraction as part of the SNS function
  292. Muscarinic receptors
    are found in many organs throughout thebody and primarily responsible for promoting parasympathic response
Card Set:
Medic 14 A&P Chapter 8
2013-03-27 18:01:46
Medic 14

chapter 8
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