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how is MCF treated?
- not successfully - create carrier states
- PCR or ELISA
- (Cull positives)
what are two reportable diseases that affect swine and ruminants with similar clinical signs?
- vesicular stomatitis (also horses)
- food and mouth disease
which species rarely shows signs when infected with VS or FMD?
sheep and goats
Which is the rhabdoviral disease that is considered zoonotic?
FMD survives in milk, bones, and lymph nodes. Is it zoonotic?
- No; human cases extremely rare
- man acts as fomite!
are young or adults more likely to die from FMD/VS?
young with highly virulent strains; mortality is low in general
VS and FMD are spread cow-cow, by man, and shared water/feed; but which is also associated with insect transmission?
VS (summer and fall most common)
You suspect VS/FMD so you report this to the state vet. What diagnostic test will help distinguish which virus in an animal showing signs?
- (virus isolation takes too long)
is cytopathic or noncytopathic form of BVD more prevalent?
what are clinical signs in type 1 and type 2 BVD genotypes?
- Oral ulcers
- 2: same
- + Increased severity
- lso a thrombocytopenic form
how does a calf become persistently infected with BVD?
- exposed <125 days in gestation
- Sheds for life
what is mucosal disease?
PI with Noncytopathic form, exposed to Cytopathic
what birth defects are associated with BVD exposure @ 90-180 days in utero? 4
- cerebellar hypoplasia
what happens if fetus exposed to BVD >125 days in utero?
can eliminate the virus
do majority of cattle infected with BVD present as acute, chronic or subclinical cases?
Subclinical - Immunosuppressed, and likely have 2' Dz (pneumonia)
what clinical signs describe mucosal disease? why can this be confusing when trying to diagnose the type of BVD?
- Plt destruction:
- Bloody diarrhea
- another form of BVD that is NOT a persistent infection also has plt destruction
how is BVD diagnosed in acute cases in the live animal?
- Isolation from buffy coat
how is BVD diagnosed in the dead animal?
- Aborted tissue:
- Thymus, intestine, liver
- Adult lymphoid tissue:Peyers patches
when is an ear notch biopsy used?
- Persistently infected BVD
- Retest in 3-4 weeks to r/o acute
how is BVD treated?
- Self limiting
- supportive - Abx for 2', fluids, NSAIDs
how is BVD prevented?
- vaccine (MLV, killed vx for pregnant)
- Cull PI's
- Isolate new for 3-4wks
A new addition cow is pregnant and tested negative for persistent infection of BVD on skin biopsy. Is it necessary to test her calf when it's born?
Yes, PI if calf was exposed >125 days
what is done with cows that test positive for PI?
- Slaughter only market
What is "Orf"?
What type of virus?
Who is affected?
- contagious ecthyma
- Parapox virus
- Not reportable (confused with VS/FMD)
what are clinical signs of orf?
- *proliferative* lesions on:
- Coronary bands
can the pox virus penetrate intact mucosa? what age is most susceptible?
- No, rough forage can damage mucosa
- 3-6 mo old feeder lambs - co-mingling
is orf a fatal disease?
no, Self limiting
is there a vaccine for Orf?
- yes for problem herds
- -MLV can induce disease
- -give behind olecranon
will choke lead to metabolic acidosis or alkalosis?
met. acidosis (bicarb lost in saliva)
what parasite is associated with megaesophagus?
Treatment of megaesophagus is often unrewarding, but if the llama's mama really wants to give it a shot, how would you treat? 4
- Feed upright