FA Med Q3, VI

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FA Med Q3, VI
2013-03-24 12:32:09
FA Med Q3 VI

FA Med Q3, VI
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  1. how is MCF treated?
    • not successfully - create carrier states
    • PCR or ELISA
    • (Cull positives)
  2. what are two reportable diseases that affect swine and ruminants with similar clinical signs?
    • vesicular stomatitis (also horses)
    • food and mouth disease
  3. which species rarely shows signs when infected with VS or FMD?
    sheep and goats
  4. Which is the rhabdoviral disease that is considered zoonotic?
    vesicular stomatitis
  5. FMD survives in milk, bones, and lymph nodes. Is it zoonotic?
    • No; human cases extremely rare
    • man acts as fomite!
  6. are young or adults more likely to die from FMD/VS?
    young with highly virulent strains; mortality is low in general
  7. VS and FMD are spread cow-cow, by man, and shared water/feed; but which is also associated with insect transmission?
    VS (summer and fall most common)
  8. You suspect VS/FMD so you report this to the state vet. What diagnostic test will help distinguish which virus in an animal showing signs?
    • ELISA
    • (virus isolation takes too long)
  9. is cytopathic or noncytopathic form of BVD more prevalent?
  10. what are clinical signs in type 1 and type 2 BVD genotypes?
    • 1:
    • Diarrhea
    • Abortion
    • Oral ulcers
    • Immunosuppression
    • 2: same
    • + Increased severity
    • lso a thrombocytopenic form
  11. how does a calf become persistently infected with BVD?
    • exposed <125 days in gestation
    • Sheds for life
  12. what is mucosal disease?
    PI with Noncytopathic form, exposed to Cytopathic
  13. what birth defects are associated with BVD exposure @ 90-180 days in utero? 4
    • cerebellar hypoplasia
    • microphthalmia
    • brachygnathia
    • hypotrichosis
  14. what happens if fetus exposed to BVD >125 days in utero?
    can eliminate the virus
  15. do majority of cattle infected with BVD present as acute, chronic or subclinical cases?
    Subclinical - Immunosuppressed, and likely have 2' Dz (pneumonia)
  16. what clinical signs describe mucosal disease? why can this be confusing when trying to diagnose the type of BVD?
    • Plt destruction:
    •   Epistaxis
    •   Bloody diarrhea
    •   Hyphema
    • another form of BVD that is NOT a persistent infection also has plt destruction
  17. how is BVD diagnosed in acute cases in the live animal?
    • Isolation from buffy coat
    • PCR
    • ELISA
  18. how is BVD diagnosed in the dead animal?
    • Aborted tissue:
    • Thymus, intestine, liver
    • Adult lymphoid tissue:
    • Peyers patches
    • Spleen
    • Lung
    • LN
  19. when is an ear notch biopsy used?
    • Persistently infected BVD
    • Retest in 3-4 weeks to r/o acute
  20. how is BVD treated?
    • Self limiting
    • supportive - Abx for 2', fluids, NSAIDs
  21. how is BVD prevented?
    • vaccine (MLV, killed vx for pregnant)
    • Cull PI's
    • Isolate new for 3-4wks
  22. A new addition cow is pregnant and tested negative for persistent infection of BVD on skin biopsy. Is it necessary to test her calf when it's born?
    Yes, PI if calf was exposed >125 days
  23. what is done with cows that test positive for PI?
    • Euthanize
    • Slaughter only market
  24. What is "Orf"?
    What type of virus?
    Who is affected?
    • contagious ecthyma
    • Parapox virus
    • Sheep
    • Zoonotic
    • Not reportable (confused with VS/FMD)
  25. what are clinical signs of orf?
    • *proliferative* lesions on:
    • Lip
    • Nares
    • Coronary bands
    • Mammary
    • (spring)
  26. can the pox virus penetrate intact mucosa? what age is most susceptible?
    • No, rough forage can damage mucosa
    • 3-6 mo old feeder lambs - co-mingling
  27. is orf a fatal disease?
    no, Self limiting
  28. is there a vaccine for Orf?
    • yes for problem herds
    • -MLV can induce disease
    • -give behind olecranon
  29. will choke lead to metabolic acidosis or alkalosis?
    met. acidosis (bicarb lost in saliva)
  30. what parasite is associated with megaesophagus?
  31. Treatment of megaesophagus is often unrewarding, but if the llama's mama really wants to give it a shot, how would you treat? 4
    • Metaclopramide
    • Cimetidine
    • Sucralfate
    • Feed upright