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The modern era was an age of progress that was providing __, better __, more goods to consume, and greater __. Still, __ was challenged. Many workers still endured pitiful conditions and __; women wanted __.
- higher standards of living
- low wages
- to vote
. After 1880, Europeans engaged in a great race for colonies around the world. There were two alliance systems—__ and the __.--> __. __ made it easier for governments to stir up the masses by __appeals through new __. Philosophers were still questioning traditional ideas and values.
- Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente
- Mass education
- mass journalism
Toward the Modern Consciousness: Intellectual and Cultural Developments: Before, __, __, and __ were values and ideals held. Human improvement and betterment of society were demonstrated through rising standard of __, __improvements, and __.
- reason, science, and progress
- mass education
Products of modern technology like __and __reinforced the prestige of science and the belief that the human mind can understand the world through reason. Near the end of the 19th century, a dramatic transformation in the realm of ideas and culture challenged these views
. A new view of the __, an appeal to the __, alternative views of __, and innovative forms of __shattered old beliefs and set the stage for __.
- physical universe
- human nature
- literary/ artistic expression
Developments in the Sciences: The Emergence of a New Physics
- a. Belief: based on hard facts and cold reason, science offered certainty of belief in orderliness of nature that appealed to religion-less people
- b. Belief: applying scientif laws would enable complete understanding of physical world and reality
- i. Physics corrected this belief
- a. 19th: westerners adhered to mechanical conception of universe postulated by classical physics of Newton
- i. Giant machine in which time, space and matter were objective realities that existed independently of the people observing them
- ii. Matter was made of indivisible solid material bodies called atoms
- a. Views were questioned at end of 19th
- i. Marie Curie and Pierre discovered that radium gave off rays of radiation from within the atom itself
- 1. Atoms not hard, material bodies, but small worlds containing electrons and protons that behaved randomly
- i. Max Planck rejected belief that a heated body radiates energy in a steady stream but said that energy is radiated discontinuously, in irregular packets called “quanta”
- 1. Quantum theory raised fundamental questions about subatomic realm of the atom
- a. Old view of atoms as basic building blocks was quesrioned
- i. Published paper titled “The Electro-Dynamics of fMoving Bodies” that contained his special theory of relativity theory, space and time are not absolute but relative to the observer, and both are interwoven into what he called a 4D space-time continuum
- 1. Neither space nor time had an existence independent of human experience
Einstein's matter and energy
- i. Matter and energy reflected the relativity of time and space
- 1. Einstein concluded that matter was nothing but another form of energy
- a. E=mc2 –each particle of matter is equivalent to mass times square of the velocity of light (key theory explaining the vast energies contained within the atom)à atomic age
i. At first, ideas misunderstood, but total eclipse demonstrated it = Einstein’s general theory of relativityà heroic age