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what does the cow's incisors look like by age 5?
All erupted and worn
how many incisors does the camelid have?
- 1 upper
- 1 upper and lower canine "fighting teeth"
what is a common cause of premature dental attrition?
- sandy soil ("gummer")
- usually >5 yrs old
Top r/o for a camelid with a mandibular swelling?
A cow with mandibular swelling?
- camelid: tooth root abscess
- cow: lumpy jaw (Actinomyces bovis)
how are tooth root abscesses Dx?
- Sx + Abs for best prognosis
Causative agent of wooden tongue?
How does the cow acquire this infection?
What type of infection does it cause (serous, pyo, granuloma)?
- actinobacillus lignieresii
- damaged mucosa (normal commensal of mouth/rumen)
- Granulomatous in soft tissue/tongue
what is gold standard for diagnosis of wooden tongue? what will the test show?
- biopsy and culture
- "sulfur granules" or "club like rosettes"
what kind of bacteria is Actinobacillus?
gram negative filamentous rod
how is wooden tongue treated?
what are some special considerations regarding this treatment?
- sodium iodine for 7 days (then every 3d if refractory)
- highly irritating if extravasates; caution iodine toxicity - SLUD signs; dandruff on dorsum
what antibiotics can also be effective treatment for wooden tongue?
what is causative agent of lumpy jaw?
how does cow acquire this infection?
- actinomycosis bovis
- commensal of mouth - mucosal damage - hard mass in mandible
what are other causes of hard immovable mass on the mandible that need to be ruled out?
- tooth root abscess
what kind of bacteria is actinomycosis? how is it described on a slide?
- gram positive filamentous rod
- "sulfur granules" in clusters
- (actinobacillus = G- & rosettes)
why will beta lactam drugs work for actinomycosis but not actinbacillus?
what else is used to treat lumpy jaw?
- actinomycosis (lumpy jaw) is Gram+
- sodium iodine (same as wooden tongue)
Besides penicillin, what other antibiotic is a good choice for lumpy jaw?
- erythromycin - better penetration into bone
- (bony changes are permanent though)
Is Blue Tongue contagious? which species are affected?
- sheep mainly (minimally seen in cattle)
how is blue tongue transmitted?
what is the main disease process in sheep?
- culicoides midge
what is morbidity/mortality in sheep w/Blue Tongue?
- high morbidity
- low mortality (0-50%)
what are clinical signs associated with blue tongue? 6
- Hyperemia of muzzle, lips, ears
- Facial swelling
- Oral ulcerations
- Cyanotic tongue
- Coronitis (can slough hooves)
when is the best time to diagnose Blue Tongue? how?
- Febrile P (higher shedding)
what is treatment for blue tongue?
- Supportive therapy
- +/-Abs to prevent 2' infections
- vector control/insecticides
What type of virus is Malignant Catarrhal Fever? what is morbidity/mortality?
- herpes (so latent infections!)
- hi/hi - mortality 100%
what are the two strains of the Malig Catarrhal? who is affected?
- african form: wildabeast
- ovine form: domestic/wild sheep and goats; cattle (occasionally pig)
what are some characteristic signs of Malig Catarrhal disease? 7
- Corneal edema
- Mucosal erosions
- rare form has hematuria/death
why is it difficult to eradicate this virus from the herd? 4
- Sheep/wildebeast are asymptomatic
- Variable incubation (days to weeks)
- Asymptomatic/Persistent carriers
- Short course of illness til death
what form of MCH is seen in deer?
peracute - rapid progression to death
what are the c/s of "head and eye" MCF? 5
- acute form - hi fever w/oculonasal discharge
- Erosions of buccal papillae
- Bilateral corneal opacity
- Red, ulcerated skin
- +/- horn/hoof Sloghing
- Scabs on perineum, teat, udder
what is the difference between ELISA and PCR for detection of MCF?
- PCR =Ovine form
- ELISA= both, but cannot differentiate & can NOT detect early cases
what are pathognomonic lesions seen on histopath of MCF?
- Diffuse Vasculitis w/ Lymphocytic Infiltrates
- (GI, CNS, skin, eye, urinary tract can have lesions)
how do morbidity/mortality rates compare with VS, FMD, MCF?
- VS/FMD: high morbidity Lo mortality
- MCF: high/high
FAOf MCF, FMD, VS, and Blue Tongue, which is most likely to present with diarrhea?