FA Med Q3, V

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HLW
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209211
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FA Med Q3, V
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2013-03-24 12:46:10
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FA Med Q3
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FA Med Q3, V
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  1. what does the cow's incisors look like by age 5?
    All erupted and worn
  2. how many incisors does the camelid have?
    Canines?
    • 1 upper 
    • 1 upper and lower canine "fighting teeth"
  3. what is a common cause of premature dental attrition?
    • sandy soil ("gummer")
    • usually >5 yrs old
  4. Top r/o for a camelid with a mandibular swelling?
    A cow with mandibular swelling?
    • camelid: tooth root abscess
    • cow: lumpy jaw (Actinomyces bovis)
  5. how are tooth root abscesses Dx?
    Tx?
    • radiographs
    • Sx + Abs for best prognosis
  6. Causative agent of wooden tongue?
    How does the cow acquire this infection?
    What type of infection does it cause (serous, pyo, granuloma)?
    • actinobacillus lignieresii
    • damaged mucosa (normal commensal of mouth/rumen)
    • Granulomatous in soft tissue/tongue
  7. what is gold standard for diagnosis of wooden tongue? what will the test show?
    • biopsy and culture
    • "sulfur granules" or "club like rosettes"
  8. what kind of bacteria is Actinobacillus?
    gram negative filamentous rod
  9. how is wooden tongue treated?
    what are some special considerations regarding this treatment?
    • sodium iodine for 7 days (then every 3d if refractory)
    • highly irritating if extravasates; caution iodine toxicity - SLUD signs; dandruff on dorsum
  10. what antibiotics can also be effective treatment for wooden tongue?
    • sulfas
    • tetracycline
  11. what is causative agent of lumpy jaw?
    how does cow acquire this infection?
    • actinomycosis bovis
    • commensal of mouth - mucosal damage - hard mass in mandible
  12. what are other causes of hard immovable mass on the mandible that need to be ruled out?
    • fracture
    • tooth root abscess
    • tumor
  13. what kind of bacteria is actinomycosis? how is it described on a slide?
    • gram positive filamentous rod
    • "sulfur granules" in clusters
    • (actinobacillus = G- & rosettes)
  14. why will beta lactam drugs work for actinomycosis but not actinbacillus?
    what else is used to treat lumpy jaw?
    • actinomycosis (lumpy jaw) is Gram+
    • sodium iodine (same as wooden tongue)
  15. Besides penicillin, what other antibiotic is a good choice for lumpy jaw?
    • erythromycin - better penetration into bone
    • (bony changes are permanent though)
  16. Is Blue Tongue contagious? which species are affected?
    • No
    • sheep mainly (minimally seen in cattle)
  17. how is blue tongue transmitted?
    what is the main disease process in sheep?
    • culicoides midge
    • *vasculitis*
  18. what is morbidity/mortality in sheep w/Blue Tongue?
    • high morbidity
    • low mortality (0-50%)
  19. what are clinical signs associated with blue tongue? 6
    • Hyperemia of muzzle, lips, ears
    • Facial swelling
    • Oral ulcerations
    • Cyanotic tongue
    • Coronitis (can slough hooves)
    • Cbortion
  20. when is the best time to diagnose Blue Tongue? how?
    • Febrile P (higher shedding)
    • Isolation
  21. what is treatment for blue tongue?
    • Supportive therapy
    • +/-Abs to prevent 2' infections
    • vector control/insecticides
  22. What type of virus is Malignant Catarrhal Fever? what is morbidity/mortality?
    • herpes (so latent infections!)
    • hi/hi - mortality 100%
  23. what are the two strains of the Malig Catarrhal? who is affected?
    • african form: wildabeast
    • ovine form: domestic/wild sheep and goats; cattle (occasionally pig)
  24. what are some characteristic signs of Malig Catarrhal disease? 7
    • Fever
    • Corneal edema
    • Mucosal erosions
    • Lymphadenopathy
    • *vasculitis*
    • rare form has hematuria/death
    • +/-diarrhea
  25. why is it difficult to eradicate this virus from the herd? 4
    • Sheep/wildebeast are asymptomatic
    • Variable incubation (days to weeks)
    • Asymptomatic/Persistent carriers
    • Short course of illness til death
  26. what form of MCH is seen in deer?
    peracute - rapid progression to death
  27. what are the c/s of "head and eye" MCF? 5
    • acute form - hi fever w/oculonasal discharge
    • Erosions of buccal papillae
    • Bilateral corneal opacity
    • Red, ulcerated skin
    • +/- horn/hoof Sloghing
    • Scabs on perineum, teat, udder
  28. what is the difference between ELISA and PCR for detection of MCF?
    • PCR =Ovine form
    • ELISA= both, but cannot differentiate & can NOT detect early cases
  29. what are pathognomonic lesions seen on histopath of MCF?
    • Diffuse Vasculitis w/ Lymphocytic Infiltrates
    • (GI, CNS, skin, eye, urinary tract can have lesions)
  30. how do morbidity/mortality rates compare with VS, FMD, MCF?
    • VS/FMD: high morbidity Lo mortality
    • MCF: high/high
  31. FAOf MCF, FMD, VS, and Blue Tongue, which is most likely to present with diarrhea?
    MCF

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