Developmental Psychology

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Developmental Psychology
2010-05-27 01:32:19
play years psychosocial developmental

chapter 10
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  1. Emotional Regulation
    the ability to control when a how emotions are expressed. The most important psychosocial development to occur between the ages of 2 and 6
  2. Initiative versus guilt
    Erikson's 3rd psychosocial crisis. Children begin new activities and feel guilty when they fail
  3. Self-esteem
    how a person evaluates his or her own worth
  4. Self-concept
    a persons understanding of who he or she is.
  5. Instrinsic motivation
    goals or drives that come from inside a person
  6. Extrinsic motivation
    the need for rewards from outside, such as material possessions or someone else's esteem
  7. Externalizing problems
    difficulty with emotional regulation that involves outwardly expressing emotions in uncontrolled ways
  8. Internalizing problems
    difficulty with emotional regulation that involves turning one's emotional distress inward, as by feeling excessively guilty ashamed or worthless
  9. The 4 forms of aggression
    • 1. instrumental aggression: hurtful behavior that is intented to get or keep something that another person has
    • 2. reactive aggression: an impulsive retaliation for another persons intentional or accidental actions
    • 3. relational aggression: nonphysical acts; such as insults or social rejection
    • 4. bullying aggression: unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attack
  10. Diana Baumrind: the characteristics of parenting styles
    • 1. Authoritarian: Parent always in charge, warmth=low, discipline=strick often physical, expectations of maturity=high, communication parent to child=high child to parent=low
    • 2. Permissive: hands off child should be child, warmth=high, discipline=rare, expectation of maturity=low, communication parent to child=low child to parent=high
    • 3. Authoritative: give and take lots of explanations and adaptations, warmth=high, discipline=moderate with much discussion, expectation of maturity=moderate, communication parent to child=high child to parent=high
  11. Problems with parenting styles
    • 1. Authoritarian: strict discipline especially physical doesnt allow positive reinforcement and there should be min punishment and negative reinforcement. Shapping the best behavior iis by alot of fun positive reinforcement a little bit of negative reinforcement and punishment. Can cause depression problems later they will think that they are always bad and that how love is.
    • 2. Permissive: makes the child little world predictable from them althoug hthey feel safe knowing the risk of things. The child feels they can do anything but often grow up later on to be unorganized and unable to stay on task
    • 3. Authoritative: Raned in the middle no problems with this parenting style
  12. Freud's psychosexual stages of development
    • ID: oral 0-2 infant achieves gratification through oral activities (such as feeding, thumb sucking, and babbling)
    • EGO: Anal 2-3 the child learns to respond to some of the demands of society (such as bowel and bladder control)
    • SUPEREGO: Phallic 3-7 the child learns to realize the differences between males and females and becomes aware of sexuality. Oedipas Complex & Electra Complex
    • LATENCY: Puberty 7-11 dormant sexual feeling but sexual urges are relatively quiet
    • GENITAL: 11-adult maturation of sexual interest
  13. Erogenous Zone
    pleasure center areas of the body. place where we find our sensation
  14. Gender Schema
    a cognitive concept or general belief based on ones experiences
  15. Oedipus Comples
    the unconscious desire of young boys to replace their father and win their mother' exclusive love
  16. Electra Complex
    the unconscious desire of girls to replace their mother and win their father's exclusive love
  17. Erik Erikson's stage theory
    • Stage one: birth-1 trust vs mistrust (is my world predictable and supportive?)
    • Stage two: 2-3 authonomy vs shame & doubt (can i do things by myself or must i always rely on others?)
    • Stage three: 4-6 initiative vs guilt (am i good or am i bad?)
    • Stage four: 6-11 industry vs inferiority (am i complete or am i worthless?)
  18. Cultures around the world
    any culture all around the world by the age of 6 what is that they need to know/do to become successful members of society