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How CO2 is carried.
1. 1st CO2 combines with H2) in RBC to form____.
carbonic acid (H2CO3)
How CO2 is carried.
2. Carbonic acid then dissociates to __ and ___. The bicarb leaves the RBC exchanging for ___ ions.
- HCO3(bicarb) and H.
- Cl ions.
When H is abundant (acidic condition/pH low), excess H is sponged up by ___ to form ____. Reaction goes to the ____.
HCO3- (bicarb), H2CO3 (carbonic acid). Left.
When H is scarce (alkaline condition/pH
high), excess H is released by ___ to form ___. Reaction goes to the
___. (more water and CO2 are converted into this)
H2CO2 (carbonic acid). HCO3-(bicarb) and H+. Right.
When pH is low <7.40 (acidic) it means the H is increased which pushes the reaction to the left and more __ and __ are made.
water and CO2
When pH is high >7.40 (alkaline) it means the H is decreased. This pushes the reaction to the right and more ___ is made
Excessive ventilation to get rid of CO2 leading to ___ blood CO2 and ___ pH (alkalosis)
- high pH.
decreased ventilation retaining more CO2. Leads to ___ blood CO2 and __ blood pH (acidosis)
1. Quick shallow breaths.
2. normal respiration.
3. increased resp rate.
4. temporary halt in resp.
- 1. panting
- 2. eupnea.
- 3. hyperpnea.
- 4. apnea.
What controls the basic rhythm of respiration? It contains both the inspiratory and expiratory center.
medulla rhythmicity area.
Stimulates the diaphragm via the phrenic nerve and the external intercostal muscles via intercostal nerves.
Inactive during quiet breathing. When forced to be active, impulses stimulate the __ and __ to contract.
- Expiratory Center.
- intercostals and abdominal muscles.
Other sites in the __ help the medullary centers manage the transition between inhalation and exhalation. 2 centers.
- pneumotaxic center.
- apneustic center.
The ____ in the pons limits the the duration of inspiration to prevent lungs from getting to full.
The ___ in the pons coordinates the transition between inhalation and exhalation.
What has voluntary control of our breathing if we choose?
Emotions (___ system) can affect breathing.
Bronchial stretch receptors, sensing over inflation, arrest breathing temporarily. This is called what.
Hering Breuer reflex
The ___, sensing a fever, increases breathing.
___ send input to the inspiratory center and increase resp if CO2 and/or H+ are HIGH or PO2 is low.
1. Lungs begin to develop at week ___
2. primary and secondary bronchi visible at week____.
3. tertiary bronchi seen at week ____.
4. lobes of lungs seen at wk ____.
5. Alveoli develop at wk ___.
- 1. wk 4.
- 2. wk 5.
- 3. wk 6.
- 4. wk 8.
- 5. wk 16-26.
Surfactant is not produced until wk ___. artificial surfactant can be given to reduce what syndrome.
- Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome (IRDS)