TEC 2601 Test 2

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oaboss
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209274
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TEC 2601 Test 2
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2013-03-24 20:34:30
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  1. Rank order of world energy consumption
    • gas
    • oil
    • coal
    • nuclear
    • hydro
    • biomass
  2. US sectors with largest demands of oil, natural gas, coal
    • oil: transportation industry
    • natural gas: buildings
    • coal: electric power
  3. primary energy for major countries:china, france, russia, brazil
    • China: coal (22%)
    • France: nuclear (2.5%)
    • russia: gas (6.5%)
    • brazil: hydro (1.8%)
  4. US vs. China
    • US: oil, natural gas, coal (6.3 TOE/capita)
    • China: coal, oil, natural gas (1.56 TOE/capita)
  5. Petroleum!
    • -remnants of organic material (not plants)
    • - formed: by pressure and high temp trapped by impermeable layer
    • - formation rate: 7,000 barrels/yr
  6. Wells
    • First commerical: titusville, pa
    • largest: spindletop, beaumont, tx
  7. Largest reserves in Middle East
    Saudi Arabia
  8. top five sources for US imports
    Canada, saudi arabia, venezuela, mexico, nigeria
  9. what's OPEC!?
    organization of the petroleum exporting countries
  10. peak oil Hubbert
    • - peak oil theory
    • - bell curve
  11. EROEI
    • Energy return on energy invested
    • trends: conventional, got worse
  12. Extraction (primary)
    oil flows to bore hole driven by ambient pressure in reservoir (~10-15%)
  13. extraction (secondary)
    injection of high pressure water (up to 20%)
  14. Extraction (tertiary)
    deep steam, CO2 injection acts as solvent, increases mobility of remaining oil currently used in w. texas (10%)
  15. Drilling (horizontal/offshore) Advantages
    • Multiple holes to be drilled/platform
    • Provides access to otherwise inaccessible¬†¬† reserves
    • *Worlds Deepest Platform: Perdido Gulf Mex. - **owned by Royal Dutch Shell
  16. Oil Transport
     
    Single Vs Double Hull
    • Single: More likely to spill
    • --Nissos Amorgos Sea empress
    • Double: Safer
    • --Olympic Sponsor, Borga
    • **Both crashed in Venezuela
    • ***Most Cost Effective way to move oil
  17. Simple distillation
    Seperates natural components by boiling point
  18. Downstream Distillation
    Chemically changes ratio of natural components
  19. Fractional Distillation
    • Heated
    • extracted @ different heights along column
    • followed by chemical processing
    • *1 barrel=42 gallons
    • ** largest components: Gasoline, Distilated Fuel oil, and jet fuel.
  20. Cracking
    Breaking bigger hydrocarbon molecules into gasoline (heat, chemical catalyst)
  21. Polymerization
    Assembling gasoline from smaller hydrocarbons molecules
  22. Reforming
    Changing molecular structures of "low Quality" gasoline molecules
  23. Define"Unconventional Oil"
    3 types
    • -Petroleum produced or extracted using techniques other than the well method
    • - Oil Shale(Kerogen)
    • - Shale Oil
    • - Tar Sands(bitumen)
  24. Tar Sand (Bitumen)-Adhesive/WaterProofing
    -2 Largest Reserves in which Countries
    -Recovery process
    -%Currently Recoverable
    • -Venezuela, Canda
    • -Open Pit mining/fractional distillation
    • -10% recovery
  25. Keystone Pipeline
    -What is it
    -Where is it
    -Issues/concerns
    • -Tar sands transportation pipeline
    • -Alberta Canada to Texas
    • -(+)Energy Security, Increased Tax Revenue, Jobs
    • -(-)Carbon Footprint, possible contaminate
  26. Oil Shale (Kerogen)
    -Green River Formation
    • -Extends across 3 States:Colorado, Utah, Wyoming
    • -3x Saudi Arabia Reserves
    • -78% on Federal Land
    • ->1000 down
  27. Retorting Process
    • -Lots of water
    • -2-3 barrels/1 barrel
    • -leftover shale residue
  28. In-Situ Conversion Process (ICP)
    • -Heating the ground
    • -ice wall to control groundwater
  29. Shale Oil (Trapped)
    -What is it
    -high/low EROEI
    - Fracking issues(+/-)
    • -Trapped in Rock (NOT KEROGEN)
    • -LOW EROEI, High Carbon Intensity!
    • -(+)Jobs, huge reserves of petroleum, state taxes
    • -(-)Clogged roads, noisy, cement leakage, oil spills, cementing inadequate
  30. Addicted to oil
    - issues
    - solutions
    • -Issues: terrorism funding, energy security, greenhouse emissions, eroding things, vehicles
    • - Solutions: solar power, wind, hydro, hybrids, hydrogen fuel cells
  31. Major environmental concerns :( (shale oil)
    - oil spills
    - water pollution
    - climate change (CO2)
    • - Waste pits
    • - Oil companies are digging more wells rather than fixing water pits
    • - uses lots of water
    • - methane present
    • - emits high amounts of hydrocarbons
  32. Natural gas (background)
    • -History: greece built temple had escaping natural gas, china bamboo pipeline brine,
    • western street lighting, bunsen mix of gas and air
    • - Uses: space heating, hot water, boilers, transportation, chemical feedstock
  33. Natural gas (electricity)
    • - continually increasing since 1990s
    • - less expensive than conventional steam units
    • - more environmentally benign (no SO2, less CO2)
    • - incrementally increase in capacity
  34. Natural gas (hydrocarbon formation)
    • - natural gas formed below oil-producing region, above the zones favoring graphite
    • - 4.5 kilometers in depth
    • - how: hc's migrate up, released to ocean or atmosphere, trapped by impermeable rock
    • - Composition: high sulfur = sour
    • - normally treated to remove impurities
    • - odorous compound, leakage
  35. Largest natural gas reserves
    • - Russia (38%)
    • - Middle East (35%)
  36. Distribution (sea)
    • - liquified natural gas (LNG)
    • - 4 locations: everret, MA; lake charles, LA; elba island, GA; cove pt, MD
  37. LNG chain
    • - Treatment: condensate removal, CO2 removal, dehydration, mercury & H2S removal
    • - value chain: gas production, liquefaction plant, shipping, regasification terminal, pipeline delivery
  38. natural gas (land)
    • - pipeline system
    • - (1891) first pipeline central indiana to chicago
    • - eventual pressurized pipelines over 3 x 10^5 miles
  39. Natural gas potential??????
    • - only four offloading terminals in US for importing
    • - shipping capacity in long-term contracts with Japan, korea, taiwan
    • - transportation expensive
  40. Unconventional Natural Shale Gas Major Formations
    • Marcellus-Largest New York Area
    • Bakken:North Dakota?
    • Mancos: Utah, Colorado
    • Barnett:Texas
  41. Biogenic VS Thermogenic (METHANE)
    • Biogenic
    • -Generated from bacteria/organic matter dry area
    • -found @ less than 1000 ft in lower carbon coal
    • Thermogenic
    • -typically a wet gas with trace amounts of water vapor, carbon dioxide....
    • -Greater than 1000 ft depth
  42. Coal
    -Where and how is it formed
    -Formation Rate
    -Largest Reserves
    • -Terrestrial trees/swamps,
    • -formation:1 meter/6,000-9,000 years
    • -Largest Reserves: U.S. Eastern Europe, Asia
  43. Types of Coal:Lignite (brown Coal)
    • -25-35% CARBON
    • -Compressed Peat
    • -texas North Dakota
  44. Types of Coal:Bituminous (Western Vs Appalachian) SOFT COAL
    • Wester(Subbituminous)
    • -35-45% carbon
    • -40% US COAL
    • Appalachian(Bituminous)
    • -45-86% carbon
    • -50% us Coal
  45. Types of Coal: ANthracite (Hard CoAL)
    • -86-97% carbon
    • -PA. WV, WA
  46. Top WORLD CONSUMERS COAL!!@
    -CHINA, E. EUROPE, ASIA, N. AMERICA
  47. Coal Mining Hazards
    • Explosions
    • -Coal dust(black lung)
    • -methane
    • Cave-ins
    • Flooding
    • Abandoned Mines
    • Ventilations
  48. Coal Mining: Surface (MTR)
    • -Highwall
    • --Contour:Follows coal seam along hillside
    • --Auger Large drills
    • -Mountain Top Removal
  49. Coal Processing"
    • -Loaded on conveyor belt
    • -cleaned and processed to remove dirt rock ash sulfur, etc.
    • -Increases heating value of coal
  50. Coal Slurry
    • -Byproduct of Washing
    • **Toxic Sludge-Mix of water, coal dust, clay and toxic chemicals such as arsenic, mercury, lead, copper and chromium.
    • -800 ponds in US
    • **200 ON TOP OF ABONDONED SURFACE MINES
    • ***SLurry INjection
  51. Coal Transportation
    • Wyoming
    • - railroad
    • - 100 miles a train per day
  52. Power plant consumption
    - 1000 MW power plant with consume 9000 tons of coal every day
  53. Coal pollutants
    • - power plants emit 40% of US CO2
    • - largest contributor of toxic air pollutants and release about 50% of particle pollution
    • - 59% of total US sulfur dioxide pollution and 18% of total nitrogen oxides every year
    • - smokestack emissions, 48 tons of mercury nationwide
  54. Regulations - surface mine SMCRA
    • - sURFACE MINIGN CONTROL AND RECLAMATION ACT
    • - illegal to abandon mines
    • - restore land back to usable conditions
  55. Regulations (water)
    • - Clean water act 1970
    • - water quality
    • - buffer zone rule: can't mine within 100 ft of water
    • - amended buffer zone rule in 2008
  56. Regulations AIRRRR
    • - cLEAN AIR ACT 1970 richard nixon
    • - six criteria pollutants: ozone, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, lead

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