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Hindsight Bias is the “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon.
After learning the outcome of an event, many people believe they could have predicted that very outcome.
A statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as "what and intelligence test measures."
Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people usually done by questioning a representative, random sample of people.
A technique in which one person is studied in depth to reveal underlying behavioral principles.
Observing and recording the behavior of animals in the wild and recording self-seating patterns in a multiracial school lunch room constitute naturalistic observation.
When one trait or behavior accompanies another, we say the two correlate.
The most frequently occurring score in a distribution.
The arithmetic average of scores in a distribution obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores that were added together.
The middle score in a rank-ordered distribution.
An independent variable is a factor manipulated by the experimenter. The effect of the independent variable is the focus of the study.
For example, when examining the effects of breast feeding upon intelligence, breast feeding is the independent variable.
A dependent variable is a factor that may change in response to an independent variable. In psychology, it is usually a behavior or a mental process.
For example, in our study on the effect of breast feeding upon intelligence, intelligence is the dependent variable.
The use of animals in experimental studies—is it reasonable to generalize from an
animal model to a human model?
Studying animals gives us the understanding of many behaviors that may have common biology across animals and humans. From animal studies, we have gained insights to devastating and fatal diseases. All researchers who deal with animal research are required to follow ethical guidelines in caring for these animals.