Psyc 2

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Psyc 2
2013-03-24 20:37:30

Psyc 2
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  1. Cell body
    Life support center of the neuron.
  2. Dendrites
    Branching extensions at the cell body. Receive messages from other neurons.
  3. Axon
    Long single extension of a neuron, covered with myelin [MY-uh-lin] sheath to insulate and speed up messages through neurons.
  4. Terminal branches of axon
    Branched endings of an axon that transmit messages to other neurons.
  5. Action potential
    A neural impulse. A brief electrical charge that travels down an axon and is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon’s membrane.
  6. Threshold
    Each neuron receives excitatory and inhibitory signals from many neurons. When the excitatory signals minus the inhibitory signals exceed a minimum intensity (threshold) the neuron fires an action potential.
  7. All-or-None Response
    A strong stimulus can trigger more neurons to fire, and to fire more often, but it does not affect the action potentials strength or speed.
  8. Intensity
    Intensity of an action potential remains the same throughout the length of the axon.
  9. Synapse
    a junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. This tiny gap is called the synaptic gap or cleft.
  10. Nerutransmitters
    (chemicals) released from the sending neuron travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing it to generate an action potential.
  11. Reuptake
    Neurotransmitters in the synapse are reabsorbed into the sending neurons through the process of reuptake. This process applies the brakes on neurotransmitter action.
  12. Agonists
    Binds and mimics
  13. Antagonists
    Bind and blocks
  14. Left brain
    The left hemisphere processes reading, writing, speaking, mathematics, and comprehension skills.
  15. The Limbic system
    is a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebrum, associated with emotions such as fear, aggression and drives for food and sex. It includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.
  16. The Amygdala [ah-MIG-dah-la]
    consists of two lima bean-sized neural clusters linked to the emotions of fear and anger.
  17. The Hypothalamus
    lies below (hypo) the thalamus.  It directs several maintenance activities like eating, drinking, body temperature, and control of emotions. It helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.
  18. The Cerebral cortex
    The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres. It is the body’s ultimate control and information processing center.