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what does the rumen secrete?
what lines the rumen?
- no secretions
- papillae lining
what does the reticulum secrete?
what lines the reticulum?
what are the 4 M's of rumination?
what does it mean if rumen fluid is black-green?
what does it mean if rumen fluid is milky gray-brown?
how long after eating concentrate should rumen analysis happen?
how long after TMR?
- concentrate: 2-4 hours
- TMR: 4-8 hours
what is pH of cow rumen on TMR vs high concentration diet?
- TMR: 6-7
- concentrates: 5-6
what does it mean if rumen pH is7-8?
what if its >8?
- 7-8 = anorexic
- >8 = saliva contamination
what does the methylene blue reduction test show?
ability of anaerobic microbes to break it down
how many protozoa should be seen per HPF
what is normal chloride analysis?
what are the products of anaerobic fermentation? 4
what VFA is important for fatty acid synthesis
Which does mostly gluconeogenesis?
- fatty acid: acetate
- gluconeogenesis: proprionate
- (butyrate - least important energy source)
what is blood glucose in adult cow?
- (less fluctuation due to continued eating, VFA production, continuous digesta flow, continuous gluconeogenesis)
how do cellulolytic bacteria digest fiber?
Which VFAs are produced?
- Cellulase to break B1-4 linkages
- Proprionate and Acetate (little butyrate)
- (prefer pH 6-7)
which VFAs are produced by amylolytic bacteria which digest starch?
what organisms predominant with grain overload?
What product predominates?
- G+ strep and lactobacillus
- (kills G- and protozoa)
- lactic acid production
what is the problem with gram negative bacteria dying off with grain overload?
release endotoxin from LPS - damage rumen wall/mycotic overgrowth
why is grain overload rumen described as "splashy"?
contents become hyperosmolar and draw fluid in
what kind of diarrhea is seen with grain overload?
gray, fetid fluid
why are cows with grain overload at risk for polioencephalomalacia?
- *thiaminase producing bacteria* proliferate - low thiamine (B1) leads to
- Dorsomedial strabismus
what are calcium levels with grain overload?
what are some sequella associated with grain overload?
- liver abscesses
- caval syndrome
- acute laminitis
what are some preventive measures clients can take to prevent grain overload? 3
- Slow Feed Changes
- Ionophores (monensin, lasalosid maint high pH reduce lactic acid)
- Good fiberiber
- Gradual, up to 6 weeks
with subacute rumen acidosis, continual rumen acidosis denudes rumen wall, leading to what? 4
Individual or herd problem?
- bacteria absorbed through rumen wall-
- liver abscesses
- *chronic* laminitis
- caval syndrome
- wt loss
what VFAs increase with SARA?
why is this a problem?
- butyrate and proprionate
- Hyperkeratosis of rumen wall = impaired absorption
what are the high risk groups for SARA (the ones you want to run samples on)?
- first 60 days of lactation
- end of feed lot period
You suspect SARA and ask your colleague to collect rumen samples from at least 12 cows. When should you tell them to collect the samples?
2-4 hours after grain consumption or 6-10 after TMR
She collected the samples and found that one third of the cows had a pH of 5. Does this mean the herd is at high or low risk for subacute rumen acidosis?
high, if >25% have pH <5.5 then SARA is high risk
what are 3 factors that enhance foam formation, causing frothy bloat?
- low pH
- less saliva production
- plants with "foaming agents" - alfalfa
- (and animals with SARA are at higher risk)
is it recommended to exercise a cow with free gas bloat?
yes, forced exercise may help
would free gas bloat occur due to hyper or hypo-calcemia?
hypOcalcemia - rumen unable to contract properly
is it recommended to trocharize every free gas bloat patient?
no, only in emergencies; try passing stomach tube first
how is frothy bloat treated?
reduce surface tension with poloxalene, household detergent like Tide, mineral oil, or DSS - should then be able to eructate through tube
who usually gets chronic bloat?
- show cattle fed more grain than usual and low fiber - free gas bloat
- calves on all milk/bucket fed or after Abs - free gas bloat
what is milk drinker bloat?
- calves 3-8 weeks of age w/improper esophageal groove - gulping rather than suckling milk
- bloat an hour after drinking
- gray/clay feces
- hyperkeratosis of rumen wall from acidosis
how is milk putrifaction treated?
- pass stomach tube - lavage rumen with saline
- tx acidosis if present (bicarb)