FA Med Q3, VII

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FA Med Q3, VII
2013-03-24 21:56:53

FA Med Q3, VII
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  1. what does the rumen secrete?
    what lines the rumen?
    • no secretions
    • papillae lining
  2. what does the reticulum secrete?
    what lines the reticulum?
    • no secretions
    • honeycomb
  3. what are the 4 M's of rumination?
    • regurgitation
    • remastication
    • resalivation
    • reswallowing
  4. what does it mean if rumen fluid is black-green?
    rumen stasis
  5. what does it mean if rumen fluid is milky gray-brown?
    lactic acidosis
  6. how long after eating concentrate should rumen analysis happen?
    how long after TMR?
    • concentrate: 2-4 hours
    • TMR: 4-8 hours
  7. what is pH of cow rumen on TMR vs high concentration diet?
    • TMR: 6-7
    • concentrates: 5-6
  8. what does it mean if rumen pH is7-8?
    what if its >8?
    • 7-8 = anorexic
    • >8 = saliva contamination
  9. what does the methylene blue reduction test show?
    ability of anaerobic microbes to break it down
  10. how many protozoa should be seen per HPF
    what is normal chloride analysis?
    • >40
    • chloride <30mEq/L
  11. what are the products of anaerobic fermentation? 4
    • CO2
    • methane
    • VFAs
    • ammonia
  12. what VFA is important for fatty acid synthesis
    Which does mostly gluconeogenesis?
    • fatty acid: acetate
    • gluconeogenesis: proprionate
    • (butyrate - least important energy source)
  13. what is blood glucose in adult cow?
    • 40-60
    • (less fluctuation due to continued eating, VFA production, continuous digesta flow, continuous gluconeogenesis)
  14. how do cellulolytic bacteria digest fiber?
    Which VFAs are produced?
    • Cellulase to break B1-4 linkages
    • Proprionate and Acetate (little butyrate)
    • (prefer pH 6-7)
  15. which VFAs are produced by amylolytic bacteria which digest starch?
    • Prorionate
    • Butyrate
    • Lactate
  16. what organisms predominant with grain overload?
    What product predominates?
    • G+ strep and lactobacillus
    • (kills G- and protozoa)
    • lactic acid production
  17. what is the problem with gram negative bacteria dying off with grain overload?
    release endotoxin from LPS - damage rumen wall/mycotic overgrowth
  18. why is grain overload rumen described as "splashy"?
    contents become hyperosmolar and draw fluid in
  19. what kind of diarrhea is seen with grain overload?
    gray, fetid fluid
  20. why are cows with grain overload at risk for polioencephalomalacia?
    • *thiaminase producing bacteria* proliferate - low thiamine (B1) leads to
    • Blindness
    • Lethargy
    • Dorsomedial strabismus
    • Recumbency
    • Death
    • PEM
  21. what are calcium levels with grain overload?
    low calcium
  22. what are some sequella associated with grain overload?
    • liver abscesses
    • caval syndrome
    • acute laminitis
  23. what are some preventive measures clients can take to prevent grain overload? 3
    • Slow Feed Changes
    • Ionophores (monensin, lasalosid maint high pH reduce lactic acid)
    • Good fiberiber
    • Gradual, up to 6 weeks
  24. with subacute rumen acidosis, continual rumen acidosis denudes rumen wall, leading to what? 4
    Individual or herd problem?
    • bacteria absorbed through rumen wall-
    • liver abscesses
    • *chronic* laminitis
    • caval syndrome
    • wt loss
    • Herd
  25. what VFAs increase with SARA?
    why is this a problem?
    • butyrate and proprionate
    • Hyperkeratosis of rumen wall = impaired absorption
  26. what are the high risk groups for SARA (the ones you want to run samples on)?
    • first 60 days of lactation
    • end of feed lot period
  27. You suspect SARA and ask your colleague to collect rumen samples from at least 12 cows. When should you tell them to collect the samples?
    2-4 hours after grain consumption or 6-10 after TMR
  28. She collected the samples and found that one third of the cows had a pH of 5. Does this mean the herd is at high or low risk for subacute rumen acidosis?
    high, if >25% have pH <5.5 then SARA is high risk
  29. what are 3 factors that enhance foam formation, causing frothy bloat?
    • low pH
    • less saliva production
    • plants with "foaming agents" - alfalfa
    • (and animals with SARA are at higher risk)
  30. is it recommended to exercise a cow with free gas bloat?
    yes, forced exercise may help
  31. would free gas bloat occur due to hyper or hypo-calcemia?
    hypOcalcemia - rumen unable to contract properly
  32. is it recommended to trocharize every free gas bloat patient?
    no, only in emergencies; try passing stomach tube first
  33. how is frothy bloat treated?
    reduce surface tension with poloxalene, household detergent like Tide, mineral oil, or DSS - should then be able to eructate through tube
  34. who usually gets chronic bloat?
    • show cattle fed more grain than usual and low fiber - free gas bloat
    • calves on all milk/bucket fed or after Abs - free gas bloat
  35. what is milk drinker bloat?
    • calves 3-8 weeks of age w/improper esophageal groove - gulping rather than suckling milk
    • bloat an hour after drinking
    • gray/clay feces
    • hyperkeratosis of rumen wall from acidosis
  36. how is milk putrifaction treated?
    • pass stomach tube - lavage rumen with saline
    • tx acidosis if present (bicarb)