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  1. FUTURE THING - intended to do, but didn't or won't NOW do in the future 
    1. past perfect or past simple (and often past continuous & past perfect continuous)

    @ I had hoped to visit the gallery before I left Florence, but it is closed on Sundays

    @ Bill planned to retire at 60, but we have persuaded him to stay for a few more years.
  2. FUTURE THING - PRESENT or PAST continuous tense
    1.  past con implies less definite 

    @ I was thinking of going down to London next weekend,but it depends how much money I've got (Less definite than I'm thinking of going)

    1. use simple past instead past continuous
    @ we went to Spain three times last year

    1. However, if it emphasize repeated actions for a LIMITED and temporary period = continuous

    @ When Carlo was in hospital, we were visiting him twice a day
  4. TWO or more PAST completed events that followed one another 

    1. usage
    1. use past tense for both

    @ she got up when the alarm clock went off
  5. In NEWS reports

    1. usage
    • 1. present perfect = to introduce the news
    • 2. past or other tense = to give details

    1. usage
    • 1. use PRESENT PERFECT = in main clause
    • 2. use PAST = time clause

    @ Since Peter became president, both taxes and unemployment have increased

    @ She hasn't been able to play tennis ever since she broke her arm

    3. use both PRESENT PERFECT tense in both time & main clause if two effect extend till the present
  7. Simple for (present/past)
    1. talk about general situations, habits, and things that are or were always true

    @ My parent spend some time in Italy every year (habit)
  8. Will vs be going to
    1. for a future event that is based on our opinion or experience - WILL

    2. for a future event that is based on evident - be going to

    • @ Why not come over at the weekend? The children will enjoy seeing you again
    • @ The sky has gone really dark.  There is going to be a storm

    3. we make a decision at the moment of speaking - WILL

    4. future decision have already been made - be going to

    • @ I will pick him up at 8am (an offer making an arrangement now)
    • @ I am going to collect the children at 8am (previously arranged)
  9. this morning/week/month & today; after, when, until, as soon as, once,by the time, the minute/second/moment

    1. usage
    1. can either present perfect or past

    2. present perfect = imply future

    3. past tense = completed event
  10. Past perfect continuous vs past continuous
    1. past perfect continuous = to emphasize how long the activity went on

    @  When the merger was announced it became apparent that the two companies had been discussing the possibility since last year  VS

    @ A friend told me about a conversation she had recently overhead. Two women were discussing their holiday plan.... (don't care how long)
    @ I was late this morning - time pasted

    @ I have not seen him today - today is still on
  12. Shall - I
    Will - You, she, he, they, you

    but can use

    You shall have a son and you shall name him John, Angel said
    when giving an order, can use You shall
  13. It/This/That is/will be the first time

    1. tense to follow
    1. generally use the present perfect in the next clause

    @ That's the first time I've seen Jan look embarrassed (reporting a past event)

    @ It won't be the first time she has voted against the government in her long career (taking about a future event)
Card Set:
2013-04-02 06:20:16
English tense

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