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  1. I.                   France: Travails of the Third Republic
    a.      1890s: fragile Third Republic experienced another crisis, which was evidence of the renewed anti-Semitism of Europe
  2. 1895
    • a.      1895: Alfred Dreyfus, a Jew and a captain in thee French general staff, was found guilty by a secret military court of selling army secrets and condemned to life imprisonment on Devil’s Island= innocent
    •                                                               i.      Another officer, a Catholic aristocrat, was the traitor, but the Catholic refused new trial
    •                                                             ii.      The case pushed anti-Semitic views
  3. Republican leaders
    •                                                               i.      Republic leaders however, insisted on a new trial after public outrage
    • 1.      Although it failed to set aside the guilty verdict, the government pardoned Dreyfus and he was exonerated
    • b.      Impact of Dreyfus affair extended beyond France
    •                                                               i.      Convinced Theodor Herzl, who covered the trial for a Viennese newspaper, that assimilation didn’t protect Jews from anti-Semitism
    • 1.      He said jews needed a country of their ownà Zionist movement
  4. Dreyfus affair in France
    • a.      In France, the Dreyfus affair led to a change in government
    •                                                               i.      Moderate republicans lost control to radical republicans who were determined to make greater progress toward a more democratic society by breaking the power of the Republic’s enemies, especially the army and the Catholic Church
  5. Army
    • 1.      Army got rid of all antirepublical officers
    • 2.      Most Catholic religious orders that controlled Frenech schools were forced to eleave France
    • a.      Church and state separated in 1905à government seized church property and stopped paying clerical salaries
  6. These changes
    •                                                               i.      These changes ended the political threat from the right to the Third Republic, which commanded the loyalty of most French people
    • 1.      Problems remained
    • a.      Nation of small businessmen and farmers, the French were behind Great Britain, Germany, and the US in industrial activity
  7. Surge of industrialization
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Moreover, a surge of industrialization after 1896 left the nation with the realization that little had been done to appease the discontent of the French working classes and their abysmal working conditions
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Since only ¼ French wage earners worked in industry, there was little pressure for labor legislation from the French parliament
  8. Use of strikes
    • 1.      Use of strikes more appealing to working classes
    • a.      The brutal government repression of labor walkouts in 1911 only further alientated the working classes
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2013-03-25 15:46:11
HON 122

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