Psychology: Chapter 1

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lonekiwi25
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209395
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Psychology: Chapter 1
Updated:
2013-03-25 15:20:10
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Psychology
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Chapter 1 - Psychology: the study of mental processes and behaviour
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  1. Psychology is the scientific investigation of...
    mental processes (thinking, remembering and feeling) and behaviour. Understanding a person requires attention to the individual's biology, psychological experience and cultural context.
  2. Wilhelm Wundt
    • "Father of Psychology"
    • Structuralist
    • Introspection
    • Kept his focus on mind and mental processes
  3. Introspection is...
    the process of looking inward and reporting on one's conscious experience.
  4. Consciousness is...
    the awareness of the immediate experience.
  5. Structuralism...
    is a school of psychology that attempts to uncover the basic elements of consciousness through introspection.
  6. Functionalism...
    is a school of psychology that attemps to explain the role - the function - of psychological processes.
  7. Structuralists believe...
    that psychology should use introspection - the careful systematic self-observation of one’s own conscience experience to analyze consciousness into its basic elements (i.e. sensations, feelings and images).
  8. Functionalists believe...
    that psychology should focus on the purpose and adaptive functions of consciousness.
  9. Edward Titchner
    • Structuralist
    • Ex-Wilhelm Wundt student
    • Advocated the use of introspection in experiments in hope of developing a periodic table of the elements of the human consciousness.
  10. William James
    • Key founder of functionalism
    • Wrote very first Psychology book "Principles of Psychological States"

  11. A paradigm is...
    a broad system of theoretical assumptions that a scientific community uses to make a sense of its area(domain) of study.

    • a broad system of theoretical assumptions employed by a scientific community that includes shared models, metaphors and methods.
    • Psychology lacks a unified paradigm but has a number of schools of thought, or perspectives, that can be used to understand psychological events.
  12. Sigmund Freud
    • Created psychoanalysis theory
    • Unconscious - Argued that people's behavior is greatly influenced by how people cope with their sexual urges.
    • Dreams
    • Repression
    • Defense mechanisms
  13. Psychoanalytical theory is...
    A theory developed by Freud that attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinations of behavior.
  14. Psychodynamic perspective proposes that...
    people's actions reflect the way thoughts, feelings and wishes are associated in their minds; that many of these processes are unconscious; and that mental processes can conflict with one another, leading to compromises among competing motives.
  15. Psychodynamic psychologists' primary method of research and what are they trying to achieve?
    Although their primary method has been the analysis of case studies, reflecting the goal of interpreting the meanings hypothesised to underlie people's actions, psychodynamic psychologists are increasingly making use of experimental methods to try integrate psycholodynamic thinking with scientific psychology

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