Chap 7&8

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Author:
lorenb2k
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209414
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Chap 7&8
Updated:
2013-03-25 19:14:31
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Chap 7&8
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  1. Fibromyalgia
    • my/o = muscle
    • algia = pain

    • Triggered by trauma
    • Substance P changes 'increased' perception of pain to your brain
    • Low serotonin levels affect pain, mood, sleep
  2. Scoliosis
    • Scoli/o = curve
    • Idiopathic means unknown cause
    • Most common in teenage girls
  3. Osteoarthritis
    • arthr/o = joints
    • DJD= degenerative joint disease
    • S/S; pain & stiffness during activity...others =obesity, trauma
    • Dx: bone spurs & joint spacing
  4. Lyme Disease
    • Ticks must be attached for 24 hours
    • 'Bull's eye' like lesion on skin
    • S/S: muscle pain
    • Dx: Blood work to detect antibodies
  5. Osteomyelitis
    • Infection of bone/muscle
    • Risk factor: Diabetes Mullitis
    • Subperiosteal = the underneath layer around bone
    • Sequestrum is due to bone chips
    • DX; Bloodwork to detect necrotic bone (dead bone)
  6. Gout
    • Caused by increase in uric acid deficient in the kidneys
    • Most common in overweight males who drink alcohol
    • S/S: sudden & severe
    • Dx: hyperuircemia in labs
    • Xrays show uric acid crystals in joint space
  7. Paget's Disease
    • Et: genetic, viral infection
    • abnormal bone breakdown
    • S/S: bowed and fracture bones
    • Dx: increased protein levels in bones
  8. Marfan's Syndrone
    • Abnormal long extremities, can affect lungs, spinal cord, and skin
    • S/S; bleeding out
    • mycromathia=abnormal connective tissue with weakness of blood vessels
  9. Bone tumors
    • S/S; abnormal bone growth
    • Osteosarcoma = malignant tumor
    • most common in persons age 10-20, puberty
    • Dx; increase levels in ALP & LDH due to neoplasm
  10. OsteoPORosis
    • POR= reduce in bone density
    • Risk factors: postmenopasusal (PMP), hormone changes, over age 50 w/possible hip fractures (femur head)
    • Curvature disorder; Kyphosis (hunchback curve)
    • DEXA; text for bone density
  11. Osteomalacia
    • -malacia = softing of the bone
    • Deficiency & reduction in of Vit.D, calcium & Phospohorus
    • S/S; reduce calcium levels, Rickets disease in children
    • Dx:
  12. O.R.I.F.?
    • Open surgery
    • Reduction & realignment
    • Internal
    • Fixation w/plates and pins
  13. Strain v Sprain
    • Strain: pulled muscle or 'overuse' tendon
    • Sprain: tear of joint, ligament
    • S/S: edema(swelling), ecchymosis (bruising)
  14. Dislocations
    • Due to extreme force on the joint , ligament
    • Ehlers danlos syndrome: Inherited disorder affects coligen causes joints to be loose
    • Most common site: shoulder
  15. Frozen shoulder
    • Adhesive means scaring tissue
    • Capsule = ligament group (humerus to scapula to clavicle)
    • Pain leads to unused and reduce motion
    • Risk factors; servical spine disc disorder
    • Dx: arthroscopy (look into the joints)
  16. Plantar Fascitis
    • Plantar means 'under foot'
    • 'Fasc-' means thick tissue connecting heal bone
    • S/S; pain, inflamed, stift
  17. Ganglion Cyst
    • Fluid sac
    • most common site is dorsal wrist
  18. Torn Meniscus
    • Acts as 'shock absorbers'
    • Damage most caused by sports injuries
    • S/S: pain, swelling, stiffness
    • associated with ACL and PCL injuries
    • Dx: MRI
  19. Spondylolisthesis
    • Spondyl/o - refers to spine
    • Forward slipping of one disc over another
    • S/S; neuro symptoms
    • Most common site; L5 & S1
    • Excessive amount of wear and tear of bones
  20. CHAPTER 8
  21. Oral Cancer
    • Most common lips and tongue (squamous tissue)
    • Risk from: tobacco, causes O.L.(oral LEUKOplakia)
    • S/S; dysphagia (diff. swallowing) & odynophagia (painful swallowing)
  22. GERD
    • (GERD) stands for Gastroesophageal reflux disease
    • Regurgitation of the stomach and duodenal contents into the esophagus
    • Et: reflux of dysfunction
    • S/S; heartburn, nausea
  23. Esophageal Varices
    • Varic/o = varicose veins of esophagus
    • HTN = hypertension caused by liver disease
    • S/S; hematemesis &tar stool (blood flora in upper digestive)
  24. Esophageal Cancer
    • Risk factors; Chronic GERD
    • S/S; GERD(reflux) + Dysphagia (diff. swallowing)
  25. Gastric Cancer
    • Risk factors: Ulcer's Smokers Barretts H-pylori
    • S/S; ab pain, weight loss
  26. Peptic Ulcer
    • Gastric or duadenal
    • S/S; pain in indigestion
  27. Appendicitis
    • Et: stool stone like
    • S/S; fever, pain, constipation, diarreah
    • Dx: WBC
  28. Hiatal Hernia
    • Weakness in diaphram, obesity, heredity
    • S/S; GERD
    • Dx: UGI & EGD
  29. Crohn's Disease
    • Edematous - inflammation at all levels
    • Et: small bowel autoimmune
    • S/S; abdom. pain & perianal fissures
  30. Ulcerative Colitis
    • Et; autoimmmune
    • imcomplete feeling of passing stool
    • S/S; tenesmus & fulinant
  31. Intestinal Obstruction
    • Mechanical causes include: cancerous space & impacted feces
    • Et; Volvus & intrussuspection
    • S/S; lack of stool/gas, vomiting, nuasea
    • Dx; w/o Barium
  32. Diverticulosis
    • Diverticula- outpouch of large intestine w/excessive pressure
    • diverticulitis - inflammed in one or more
    • S/S; asymmptomatic
    • Dx; endo
  33. Colon Cancer
    • Et: "Adeno" carcinoma means 'glands of rectum' means glands
    • Risks; Chron's disease & polyps
    • S/S; bright red stool
  34. Cirrhosis
    • Scaring of normal liver tissue, irresversable
    • Associated w/ hepatitis or alcoholism
    • S/S; degree of liver function
  35. Biliary Stones
    • Et: made of cholesterol or balliarubin
    • Obstruction can cause Choleithiasis
    • Hyperbillirunemia (blood in the billirubin)
  36. ERCP
    Endoscoperetrograde
  37. Pancreatitis
    Et; Most common

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