215 Pain

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215 Pain
2013-03-25 14:47:00
215 Pain

215 Pain
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  1. pain should be assessed how oftern
    as often as vs are taken
  2. somatic pain =
  3. viseral pain =
    organs pain
  4. chronic pain =
    pain that lasts longer than the norm
  5. etiology
  6. neuropathic pain =
    nerve pain
  7. Pain threshold =
    least amount of stimuli necessary for a person to label a sensation as pain
  8. pain tolerance =
    most pain an individual is willing or able to tolerate beore seeking relief
  9. Transduction =
    activation of pain receptors
  10. nociceptors =
     peripheral nerve fibers that transmit pain
  11. Transmission =
    pain sensations travel along pathways to the spinal cord to higher centers (thalamus, cerebral cortex).
  12. what fibers transmit acute pain
    A- delta fibers
  13. which fiber conduct diffuse, visceral pain
  14. Perception =
    the point at which a person is aware of pain
  15. Modulation =
    process by which the sensation of pain is inhibited or modified.
  16. what are some other factors that affect pain
    • culture
    • spirituality
    • age
    • environment
    • support people
    • meaning of pain
  17. what is used to treat moderate to severe pain
    • opiod analgesics (controlled substance)
    • attach to opiod receptors in the brain
    • ie - morphine, dilaudid
  18. what pain rating should a patient ask for pain medicine
  19. what is used to treat mild to moderate pain
    • nonopiod analgesic
    • OTC
    • NSAIDS, Tylenol
  20. what have other uses but can also be used to enhance the effect of opiods
    • coanalgesias
    • ie corticosteriods, antidepressants, antiepilectic
  21. Gate control theory of pain =
    • —1. The actual existence & intensity of pain depends on the particular transmission of pain— 
    • 2. Gate mechanisms along the nervous system control the transmission of pain— 
    • 3. If the gate is open, the pain impulses reach the conscious level— 
    • 4. If the gate is closed, the pain impulses do not reach the conscious level and the sensation of pain is not experienced
  22. breathing after given opiod shoud be
    at least 10 times a minute
  23. Gate control theory explains why
    alternate therapies work to relieve pain
  24. to close the gate of pain you do what
    • cutaneous stimulation
    • TENS, accupressure, massage, hot and cold
    • Distraction, imagery
  25. Cold does what
    • constricts blood vessels
    • reduces inflammation and edema
    • dry cold- ice bags, cold packs
    • moist cold - cold compress
  26. Cold used
    within the first 24 hours
  27. heat is applied when
    after 24 hours
  28. heat does what
    • dilates blood vessels
    • reduces blood viscosity
    • reduces muscle tension
    • relieves muscle spasms and stiffness
  29. TENS =
    transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulating unit
  30. PCA =
    • patient controlled analgesia
    • tracks attempts at medication admin and actual dose received.
  31. On-Q pump =
    pump that goes directly into the incision post op. It decreases the amount of narcotics used