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2013-03-25 15:48:03
HON 122

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  1. I.                   Industrialization and Revolution in Imperial Russia
    a.      1890s: Russia had massive surge of state-sponsored industrialism under the guiding hand of Sergei Witte, the minister for finance from 1892 to 1903
  2. Count Witte
    • a.      Count Witte saw industrial growth as crucial to Russia’s national strength
    •                                                               i.      Believing that roads were powerful weapon in economic development, Witte pushed the government toward a program of massive railroad construction
    • 1.      1900: some 35,000 miles of railroads were built, including large parts of the 5000 mile trans-Siberian line between Moscow and Vladivostok, on the Pacific Ocean
  3. Protective tariffs
    •                                                               i.      Also encouraged system of protective tariffs to help Russian industry and persuaded Tsar Nicholas II that foreign capital was essential for rapid industrial development
    • 1.      His program made possible the rapid growth of a modern steel and coal industry in Ukraine, making Russia by 1900 the fourth-largest producer of steel behind the US, Germany, and Great Britain
  4. Industrialization
    • a.      Industrializationà factories, industrial working class, industrial suburbs around St. Petersburg and Moscow, and the pitiful working and living conditions that accompanied the beginnings of inudstrializaiton everywhere
    •                                                               i.      Socialist thought and socialist parties developmed, although repression in Russia soon forced them to go underground and become revolutionary
  5. Socialist thought/ parties
    •                                                               i.      Socialist thought and socialist parties developmed, although repression in Russia soon forced them to go underground and become revolutionary
    • 1.      Marxist Social Democratic Party held its first congress in Minsk in 1898, but the arrest of its leaders caused the next one to be held in Brussels in 1903, attended yb Russian émigrés
  6. Social Revolutionaries
    • 1.      Social Revolutionaries worked to overthrow the tsarist autocracy and establish peasant socialism
    • a.      Having no other outlet for their opposition to the regime, they advocated political terrorism and attempted to assassinate government officials and members of the ruling dynasty
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Growing opposition to the tsarist regime finally exploded into revolution in 1905
  7. Revolutionof 1905
    •                                                               i.      Defeat in warà political upheaval at home
    • 1.      Russia’s territorial expansion to the south and east, especially its designs on northern Korea, led to a confrontation with japan, which surprise attacked the Russian eastern fleet at Port Arthur on Feb 8, 1904
  8. In turn, Russia
    • a.      In turn, Russia sent its Baltic fleet halfway around the world to the East, only to be defeated by the new Japanese navy at Tsushima Strait off the coast of Japan
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Russians were defeated and sued for peace in 1905
  9. During war
    •                                                               i.      During war, growing discontent of increased numbers of Russians rapidly led to upheaval
    • 1.      Middle class of business and professional people longed for liberal institutions and a liberal political system
    • a.      Nationalities were dissatisfied with their domination by an ethnic Russian population that constituted only 40% of the empire’s total population 
  10. Peasants
    • a.      Peasants were still suffereing from no land, and laboerers were oppressed by working and living conditions
    • b.      Breakdown of the transport system caused by the Russo-Japanese War led to food shortanges in the major cities of Russia
  11. Jan 9, 1905`
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      As a result, on Jan 9, 1905, a massive procession of workers went to the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg to present a petition of grievances to the tsar
    • Troops opened fire on peaceful crowd, killing hundreds and launching a revolution 
  12. Bloody Sunday
    a.      “Bloody Sunday” incited workers to call strikes and form unions; meanwhile, zemstvos demanded parliamentary government, ethnic groups revolted, and peasants burned houses of landowners
  13. General strike in Oct 1905
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      After a general strike in October 1905, the government capitulated
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                             ii.      Nicholas II issued the October Manifesto, in which he granteed civil liberties and agreed to create a legislative assembly known as the Duma, elected directly by a broad franchise, which satisfied the middle-class moderates, who now supported the government’s repression of workers’ uprising in Moscow at end of 1905
  14. Failure of the Revolution
    •                                                               i.      Real constitutional monarchy proved short-lived
    • 1.      Under Peter Stolypin (tsar’s chief advisor), important agrarian reforms dissolved the village ownership of land and opened the door to private ownership by enterprising peasants 
  15. Nicholas II
    •                                                               i.      Nicholas II was no friend of reform
    • 1.      By 1907, he curtailed the power of the Duma, and after Stolypin’s murder, he fell back on army and bureaucracy to rule Russia