AP Euro Unit 7 Test

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rileyrichardson
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209442
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AP Euro Unit 7 Test
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2013-03-29 11:46:16
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AP Euro Unit
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  1. Causes of the Crimea War
    • Russia's desire to control Maldavia & Walachia
    • Russia's protection over Orthodox Christians
    • France's over Roman Catholics
  2. Uniqueness of the Crimean War
    • War correspondance
    • Photographers
  3. Nations involved in Crimean War
    • Russia
    • Ottoman Empire
    • France
    • Britain
    • Piedmont
  4. Florence Nightingale
    • British Nurse
    • Went to Crimean War & Built hospitals
    • "Lady with the lamp"
    • Founder of modern nursing
  5. Effects of the Crimean War
    • Concert of Europe discredited
    • Russia's invincibility gone
  6. Reforms of the Ottoman Empire
    • Tanzimant: Era of the Ottoman Empire
    • Lasting from 1839-1876
    • Equal non-muslims for military service & equal opportunity for state employment.
  7. Nationalist Leaders of Italy
    • Mazzini (Soul)
    • Garibaldi (Sword)
    • Camillo Cavour (Mind)
    • Victor Emanuel II
    • Piedmont (Magnet)
  8. Italian as a constitutional monarchy
    1861
  9. Count Camillo Cavour and philosophical parallels
    • Achieving unification
    • Machiavellian
  10. Facts of Cavour
    • Premier of Piedmont under Victor Emanuel II
    • favored constitutional monarch
    • Anti-republicanism
    • Favor of industry
  11. Treaty of 1858 between Cavour and Napoleon III
    • Pact of Plombieres 
    • France to provoke war
  12. Circumstances leading to Venetia's incorporation into Italian Nation
    • Austral-Prussian War of 1866
    • Prussia would hand over Venetia
  13. Role of Sardinia-Piedmont in Italian Unification
    • "The Magnet"
    • Lead by Victor Emanuel II and Cavour
  14. Cavour's keys to the unification of Italy
    • Believed in strong industry
    • National societies
    • Intervention from a foreign power
  15. Most important political development between 1848-1914
    Unification of Germany
  16. Otto von Bismarck
    • Prime minister under Wilhelm
    • Unification without Austria
    • Liberal -> Reactionary
    • Conservative
    • Favored constitutional monarchy
    • Industry
    • Military
  17. Strongest states of the German Confederation
    Prussia & Austria
  18. Reasons for Bismarck's embrace of German Nationalism
    Went around liberals to achieve unification
  19. Causes of the Danish War of 1864
    • Denmark annexed Schleswig & Holstein 
    • Treaty of Gastine: Holstein to Austria
    •                           Schleswig to Prussia
  20. Effects of the Seven Weeks' War
    • Austral-Prussian War of 1866
    • Prussia victorious
    • Bismarck achieved unification without Austria
  21. Houses of the North German Confederation govt.
    • Lower Branch: Reichstag
    • Federal Branch: Boondesroit
  22. The Bad-Ems Telegram
    • Sent by Wilhelm I to chancellor Otto von Bismarck
    • Bismarck twisted it to provoke war with France
    • Way to get Germany North & South to come together
  23. Facts about the Franco-Prussian War
    • 1870-71
    • Secured German Unification (1871)
    • Brought North & South together
    • Battle of Sedaine 
    • Napoleon III prisoner of war
    • France forced to pay cost of the war
  24. Prussia's military engagements after the Danish War
    • Austro-Prussian War
    • Franco-Prussian War
  25. French Rulers since 1789
    • LOUIS XVI
    • LOUIS XVII
    • NAPOLEON I
    • LOUIS XVIII
    • CHARLES X
    • LOUIS XIX
    • HENRI V
    • LOUIS-PHILIPPE I
    • LOUIS-PHILIPPE II
    • NAPOLEON III
  26. Facts about the Paris Commune
    • New municipal governament
    • March 28, 1871
    • Intended to administer Paris seperately from the rest of France
    • Dominated by petty Bourgeoisie
  27. Impact of emergence of German Empire
    • Germany was now super power
    • Conservativism was a blow to liberalism
  28. Facts about the Dreyfus Affair
    • December 22, 1894
    • Found Dreyfus guilty of passing secret information to the German army
  29. Facts about the 19th c. Habsburg Empire
    • Absolutist
    • Dynastic family rule
    • agricultural
    • Francis Joseph (1848-1914)
    • Military bureaucracy
  30. The Ausgleich of 1867
    • Compromise 
    • Created dual-monarchy Austria-Hungary
    • Military
    • Foreign affairs
    • Monarch
  31. Opposition to Czech trialism
    • Hungary 
    • Germans in Bohemia & Moravia
  32. Reforms of Alexander II
    • Parliament of Russia
    • Dumont never implemented
    • Westernized judicial
    • 1860-1874: Went from 25 years active duty to 6 years of active duty
    • Abolition of serfdom
    • Communes & Zemstvos
  33. Problems with Serfdom in Russia
    • Armies
    • Domestic revolts
    • Economically inefficient
    • Viewed as immoral & unethical
  34. Impacts that emancipation had on Russian serfs
    • Pay 49 year mortgage
    • Marry freely
    • Right to sue 
    • Economic rights 
    • Buy & sell land
  35. Revolutionary groups in Russia during the reign of Tsar Alexander II
    • Populist formed by intellectuals
    • Took ideas from Alexander Herzen's The Bell
    • Land and Freedom
    • People's Will
  36. Relationship of Poland with Russia prior to WWI
    • Russification 
    • Make them into another little Russia
  37. Significance of Gladstone's ministry
    • (1868-1874)
    • Witnessed culmination of classical British liberalism
    • 1870: government controlled school
  38. Ireland's movement for home rule
    • Irish land league in late 1870s 
    • Leader for home rule was Charles Stewart Parnell
    • 1881: passed Irish land act that strengthened tenant rights
  39. Typical actions of European powers in the New Imperialism
    • Seized land
    • Benefited from the advanced economies & technologies that they had developed since the late 18th c.
  40. "Open Door Policy"
    Designed to prevent formal foreign annexations of Chinese territory, and business people to trade in China on equal terms
  41. Colonization in Asia from 1880-1914
    • Japan & U.S
    • Joined British, French, and Dutch in extending control both to islands and to the mainland and in en exploiting an enfeebled China
  42. Suez Canal and dominance of Mediterranean Trade
    • Opened in 1869
    • Canal connected Mediterranean to the Red Sea
    • Reduced shipping from 12,000 miles to 7,000 miles
    • Made goods more affordable
  43. Belgian Congo
    • Henry Morton Stanley explored the Congo & made "treaties" with African rulers 
    • Leopold ruled with slave labor
  44. Conflict in South Africa (1910)
    • Colored were forbidden to own land
    • Denied right to vote
    • Excluded from positions of power
    • Racial apartheid-Separateness that segregated the land
  45. Significance of new German Empire in Europe
    • Economic & naval rival
    • Russian reforms 
    • Austria weakened & seeked reforms 
    • France isolated & weakened
  46. Bismarck's goal for Germany
    Maintain it as unified & strong but not expand it
  47. Facts and Results of the Congress of Berlin
    • Treaty of Sans-Stefano
    • Bismarck "honest broker"
    • Austria-Hungary get Bosnia-Herzegovina
    • Russia lost 2/3 land in Bulgaria
  48. Three Emperor's League, Triple Alliance, Dual Alliance, Entente Cordiale, Triple Entente
    • T. E. L.: Russia: Alex II, Austria: Francis Joseph
    • T.A: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
    • Dual: Germany & Austria-Hungary
    • Entente: France, Britain
    • T. E: Russia, France, Britain
  49. First & Second Balkan Wars (when)
    1912-1913
  50. Russo-Japanese War (when)
    1904-1905
  51. Russo-Turkish War
    1877
  52. Congress of Berlin
    1878
  53. Factors that led to World War I
    • Alliance System
    • Balkan Wars 
    • Young Turks take over Ottoman Empire
    • June 28, 1914 Archduke assassinated
  54. Impact of Second Morocco Crisis
    • 1911
    • Wilhelm II & Germany threaten France
    • Strengthened alliance between France & Britain
  55. Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand
    • June 28, 1914
    • The Black Hand 
    • Princip killed him
  56. First country that mobilized against Russia
    Austria
  57. Reasons Germany was blamed for the war
    • "Blank check" to Austria
    • Declared war on France & Russia
    • Invaded Belgium
  58. Potential #'s of soldiers available for countries in the war
    Germany
  59. Schlieffen Plan
    • Avoid a two front war
    • French & then Russia
  60. Colonel T.E. Lawrence
    • British general 
    • Rallied support of Arabs 
    • Cause problems for Turkish
  61. Weapons used during WWI
    • Machine gun
    • Poison gas
    • Tanks
    • Submarines
    • Planes
    • Artillery
    • Zeppellines
  62. The Western Front and Trench Warfare
    • Battle of the Marne
    • Battle of Verdom
    • Battle of the Somme 
    • No man's land
    • English channel to Switzerland
  63. Woodrow Wilson's view of WWI
    Idealistic crusade "to make the world safe for democracy"
  64. Causes of the March Revolution in Russia
    • Tsar Nicholas II collapsed
    • In November Bolshevik party seized power from provisional govt.
    • Result of monarch's ability to rule
  65. Soviets relationship to Provisional Govt.
    Allowed to function without supporting it
  66. Facts about the Bolsheviks
    • Working against provisional govt.
    • Leader was Lenin
    • Demanded all political power go to the Soviets
  67. Actions of Bolsheviks after seizing power
    • Nationalized land and turned it over to peasant proprietors
    • Factory workers put in charge of plants
    • State seized banks
    • Took Russia out of the war
  68. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    • Russia yielded Poland, Finland, the Baltic States, and Ukraine
    • Bolsheviks also agreed to pay a heavy war indemnity
  69. Henri Petan
    • Commander of Verdun
    • Became a national hero
    • "They shall not pass."
  70. Battle of Galopoli
    Anzac: British, Australian, New Zealand forces
  71. Last German Offensive
    Gamble everything on last offensive.

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