24 Errors of Critical Thinking

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24 Errors of Critical Thinking
2013-03-25 17:05:18
critical thinking

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  1. Poverty of Aspect
    taking a narrow rather than a broad view on problems and issues- tunnel vision
  2. Unwarranted assumptions
    ideas that are taken for granted more than what is justified by experience or circumstance
  3. Either/Or Outlook
    the expectation that the only reasonable view of any issue is either total affirmation or total rejection
  4. Mindless Conformity
    following others' example because we are too lazy or fearful to think for ourselves
  5. Absolutism
    the belief that there must be rules but no exceptions
  6. Relativism
    the existence of exceptions proves there can be no rules
  7. Bias for or against Change
    lacking a balances perspective in regard to change
  8. Biased consideration of evidence
    seeking only evidence that confirms your bias
  9. Double Standard
    Using one standard of judgment for our ideas and ideas compatible with our own, and using and entirely different standard fir ideas that disagree with ours
  10. Hasty Conclusion
    premature judgment; a judgment made without sufficient evidence
  11. Overgeneralization or Stereotyping
    ascribe to all members of a group what fits only some members
  12. Oversimplification
    goes beyond making complex ideas easier to grasp; it twists and distorts ideas to a level that misleads people
  13. Post Hoc Fallacy
    the reasoning that when one thing occurs after another, it must be the result of the other
  14. Contradiction
    no statement can be both true or false at the same time in the same way
  15. Arguing in a Circle
    an attempt to prove a statement by repeating it in a different form
  16. Meaningless Statement
    explanation in which the reasons make no sense
  17. Mistaken Authority
    ascribing authority to someone who does not possess it
  18. False Analogy
    Claiming similarities that do not withstand scrutiny
  19. Irrational Appeal
    • Encourages people to accept ideas for some reason other than reasonableness
    • Emotion, tradition, moderation, authority, common belief, tolerance
  20. Automatic Rejection
    Rejecting criticism of your ideas without giving it a fair hearing
  21. Changing the Subject
    Abruptly turning the discussion in a different direction
  22. Shifting the Burden of Proof
    Demanding that others disprove our assertions (instead of being able or willing to prove our assertions ourselves)
  23. Straw Man
    Putting false words into someone else's mouth and then expose their falsity, conveniently forgetting that the other person never said them
  24. Attacking the Critic
    The attempt to discredit an idea or argument by disparaging the person who expressed it