Animal Diversity

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Author:
ash3ach
ID:
209465
Filename:
Animal Diversity
Updated:
2013-03-29 14:15:29
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Life 103
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Description:
test 3
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  1. what 4 things make an organism an animal
    • multicellular
    • heterotrophic
    • eukaryotic
    • tissues developed from embryonic layers
  2. the zygote cell will go under what?
    cleavage- a series of mitotic cell divisions
  3. cleavage leads to what stage
    blastula, taking the form of a hollow ball
  4. what process comes after the blastula stage
    process of gastrulation, where the embryonic tissues that will develop into adult body parts are produced.
  5. what is the gastrula
    the developmental stage following gastrulation
  6. ectoderm
    covers the surface and becomes the outer covering and in some phyla the central nervous system
  7. endoderm
    is the innermost germ layer that lines the digestive tract and organs such as the lungs and liver in vertebrates
  8. mesoderm
    • is the third layer (between the other two) forming muscles and most other organs
    • •Not all animals have mesoderm
  9. Early Embryo Development in animals
  10. Body plans are?
    Sets of morphological and developmental traits
  11. Bilateral Symmetry
    • Two-sided symmetry
    • the dividing plane is called the saggital plane
    • Bilaterally symmetrical animals have
    • a Dorsal (top/back) side and a Ventral (bottom/front) side
    • a right and left side
    • Anterior (head) and Posterior (tail) ends
    • Cephalization- the development of a head
  12. cephalization
    the development of a head
  13. what is a germ layer
    • any of the 3 layers of cells differentiated in embryos following gastrulation
    • often in vertebrates
    • animals more complex than a sponge have at least 2
  14. Diploblastic
    having only two germ layers
  15. triploblastic
    • having three germ layers
    • common to all bilaterally symmetric animals
  16. body cavities
    fluid or air filled space separating digestive tract from outer body wall
  17. coelom
    • The body cavity of triploblastic animal
    •  fluid-filled body cavity that allows inner organs to shift
  18. true coelom
    what are animals with these called?
    • formed from mesoderm
    • Animals with a true coelom are coelomates
  19. psuedocoelomate
    If the coelom is formed from both endo - and mesoderm tissue
  20. acoelomates
    triploblast lacks a body cavity
  21. body cavities
  22. protostome (first mouth) development
    • –Spiral Cleavage
    • –Deterministic Cleavage
    • –Cells are rigidly cast early in development
    • –Mesoderm cells split and then form A developmental mode distinguished by the development of the mouth from the blastopore; often also characterized by spiral cleavage and by the body cavity forming when solid masses of mesoderm split.
  23. spiral cleavage
    A pattern of animals with protostome development, in which the planes of cell division are diagonal to the vertical axis of the embryo.
  24. deterministic cleavage
    A form of cleavage in which the developmental fate of each embryonic cell is cast very early.
  25. Deuterostome (second mouth) development
    • –Radial Cleavage
    • –Indeterminate Cleavage
    • •If very early embryo’s cells are removed they will produce a complete individual
    • –Coelom forms from mesoderm that buds from the archenteron
    • –The blastopore becomes the anus
  26. radial cleavage
    A cleavage pattern found in deuterostomes, in which the cleavage planes are either parallel of perpendicular to the vertical axis of the egg, with tiers of cells aligned
  27. indeterminate cleavage
    A form of cleavage in which each cell produced retains the ability to develop into a complete embryo.
  28. archenteron
    The central cavity of the gastrula, which ultimately becomes the intestinal or digestive cavity.
  29. tissues
    • collections of specialized cells isolated by membranous layers
    • Almost all animals have tissues
    • Tissues arise from germ layers
  30. protostome and deuterostome development
  31. how long have animals been on earth
    • –Some estimates place the ancestors diverging from fungi about 1 billion years ago
    • –Others place it at 675-875 million years ago
    • Morphological and molecular evidence suggests choanoflagellates are the closest living relatives to animals
  32. Neoproterozoic Era
    Edicaran Biota
    • 1 BYA –542 MYA
    • –Ediacaran Biota
    •  565 to 550 million years ago
  33. Paleozoic Era
    • 542-251 MYA
    • –Cambrian Explosion about 530 MYA
    • –First fossils of arthropods, chordates and echinoderms
  34. Mesozoic Era
    • 251 –65.5 MYA
    • –DINOSAURS (and other animals)
    • coral reefs formed
  35. what era came after the Mesozoic era
    • cenozoic era
    • 65.5 MYA to present
  36. cambrian explosion
    • 495-543 MYA
    • Almost all animal phyla appeared in a span of 48 million years-all over the world
    • Burgess Shale Fauna (520-515 MYA), British Columbia
    • Explosion of body plans, tissue types, developmental patterns–Bilateral symmetry, segmentation, heads, appendages
  37. sponges are what kind of animal
    basal- most basic
  38. Eumetazoa is a clade of animals with what
    true tissues
  39. the clade Bilateria (called bilaterians)
    • animals having bilateral symmetry 
    • most animal phyla are this
  40. the clade deuterostomia
    • chordates and some other phyla
    • "second mouth organism"

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