test 2 Bio 003

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test 2 Bio 003
2013-03-26 23:40:49
energy cell division

bio 003
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  1. Endergonic
    • Endergonic Reactions : Requires a net input of energy to get the reaction started.
    • Photosynthesis is endergonic requires solar energy to drive the reaction.
    • Stores the energy in the chemical bonds of the end product, glucose.
    • Typically they store the energy input in the form of high energy bonds
  2. Exergonic Reactions
    • Exergonic Reactions Release energy. The amount of energy released in this reaction is
    • equal to the difference in the potential energy of the reactants and the products.
    • Exergonic reactions are energy-releasing.

    Potential energy of reactants (sugar) is greater than the potential energy of the products (CO2).
    these are proteins that function as catalyst. This means they speed up the rate of a chemical rxn in the body without being consumed in the process.
  4. Glycolysis occurs where?
    occurs in the cytoplasm (common to all organisms) with or without O2 (anaerobic)
  5. Kreb Cycle occurs where?
    in the Matrix of the mitochondria
  6. Electron transport Chain
    occurs in the ?
    cristae membranes of mitochondria
  7. 3 steps of cell respiration?
    • glycolysis
    • Kreb Cycle
    • ETC
  8. Glycolysis
    • Glycolysis: occurs in the cytoplasm (common to all organisms) with or
    • without O2 (anaerobic)

    • a.     
    •  Splits glucose, a 6 carbon
    • compound, (C6) in half  to 2 (3 carbon
    • compounds) pyruvate (C3)

    • b.    
    • makes 4 ATP, and 2 NADH per glucose molecule. Because glycolysis uses 2
    • ATP, there is a net gain of 2ATP
  9. Kreb Cycle:
    • Kreb Cycle: occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria only in the
    • presence of oxygen (aerobic)

    • a.     
    • breaks pyruvate  down completely
    • to carbon dioxide (CO2) (complete oxidation)

    • b.    
    • produces 2 ATP

    • c.            
    • reduces NAD to NADH and FADH to FADH2 (coenzymes). Overall 8
    • NADH and 2 FADH2

    • the Kreb Cycle works only when O2
    • is presen
  10. Electron transport Chain:
    • Electron transport Chain: occurs in the cristae membranes of
    • mitochondria

    • a.     
    • moves e- in the form of H+ down a chain or redox
    • proteins in steps that involve a drop in energy

    • b.    
    • results in the production of a high potential energy H+ gradient

    • c.     
    • e- delivered to the ETC from NADH will produce 3ATP while those from
    • FADH2 will  produce 2ATP

    • d.    
    • Oxygen is the final electron acceptor and it becomes reduced to water.
    • ATP are produced only if O2 is available

    • e.     
    • Heat is released, this is the heat used to maintain body temperature and
    • to facilitate chemical reactions in the body. This is also an example of the
    • second law of thermodynamics…. The Law of Entropy.
  11. Which of the stages of Cell respiration produces
    the most ATP molecules?

    Electric TransportChain
  12. the loss of electrons from one substance

    is called ?
  13. the addition of electrons to another                                                  

    substance is called ?
  14. What are the two types of Fermentation
    Lactic Acid Fermentation    Pyruvate à  Lactic Acid  (NADH is oxidized) 

    Alcohol (ethanol) Fermentation   Pyruvate à Ethanol  (NADH is oxidized) and CO2
  15. How much ATP is made during Glycolysis, Kreb andETC
    Glycolysis: makes 4 ATP and2 NADH per glucose molecule. Because glycolysis uses 2 ATP, there is a net gain of 2ATP

    Kreb cycle produces 2 ATP

     ETC:34 ATP
  16. Carbon dioxide + water +sunlight ->                        glucose+oxygen
  17. glucose+ oxygen->carbon dioxide + water
    cell respiration
  18. What are the compartments of the chloroplast and what takes
    place in each compartment?
    • stroma
    • grana stacks (thyllakoid membranes )

    • Light Dependent Reactions: This is where sunlight energy is harvested and converted
    • into cellular energy. It occurs in the thyllakoid membranes (grana stack) and requires pigments to harvest light. The light
    • reaction.

    •  Calvin Cycle = Dark Reactions: This is the sugar generating step.
    • It occurs in the aqueous phase of the chloroplast called the “stroma”, is can
    • occur in the presence or absence of 
    • light.
  19. What are the compartments of the mitochondria and what occurs
    in each compartment?
    • Kreb Cycle: occurs in the
    • matrix of the mitochondria 
    • Electron transport Chain: occurs in the cristae membranes of
    • mitochondria
  20. cell respiration and photosynthesis,
    which is endergonic and exergonic 
    • cell respiration exergonic
    • photosynthesis endergonic
  21. What word defines the ability to do work?
  22. What type of energy is glucose and starch?
  23. Give an example of kinetic energy
  24. What are the  2 end products of photosynthesis?
    • oxygen
    • glucose
  25. What are the 3 end products of the light
    • oxygen
    • atp
    • nadph
  26. What is the end product of the dark
  27. Is photosynthesis endergonic or exergonic?    
  28. What are the two reactants (substrates) used to
    make ATP?
    ADP+ Pi -> ATP
  29. where gas exchange occurs in plants
  30. making NADPH and ATP
    light reaction
  31. making ATP using  NADH
    cell respiration
  32. the final electron acceptor of photosynthesis is
  33. the final electron acceptor of cell respiration is 
  34. What is the primary pigment used by plants to harvest light?
    red and blue
  35. In what area of which organelle does
  36. Which type of plant closes its stomata in the
    day and stores CO2 in the night in the form of malic acid: (C3, C4
    or CAM)?
  37. Based on the mode of photosynthesis, what type
    of plant is corn:
  38. Light Dependent Reactions occurs where?
    • It occurs in the thyllakoid
    • membranes (grana stack)