Bio Chapter 16

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Bio Chapter 16
2013-03-25 20:15:27

bio ch 16
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  1. Darwin
    noticed that many organisms seemed well suited to
    • . surviving in the environments in which they
    • lived
  2. Based on the adaptations
    Charles Darwin observed in finches and tortoises in the Galápagos, he wondered
    • if
    • finches and tortoises had originated from the same ancestral species.
  3. Which of the following ideas
    is supported by Darwin’s observation of local variation among tortoises in the
    Galápagos Islands?
  4. In the 1800s, Charles Lyell
    emphasized that
    • past geological events must
    • be explained in terms of processes observable today.
  5. Lamarck’s ideas about evolution include the concept that
    differences among the traits of organisms arise as a result of
    • . the actions of
    • organisms as they use or fail to use body structures.
  6. The economist Thomas
    Malthus suggested that
    • without certain checks on
    • population size, there would soon be insufficient food for the growing human
    • population.
  7. When a dairy farmer chooses
    to breed the cows that give the most milk in the herd, the farmers are
    following the principle of
    • . artificial
    • selection.
  8. Each
    of the following is a condition necessary for natural selection to occur EXCEPT
    • there is
    • heritable variation among members of the population.
  9. Which
    statement about the members of a population that live long enough to reproduce
    is consistent with the theory of evolution by natural selection?
    • They are the ones that are
    • best adapted to survive in their environment.
  10. The principle of common
    descent helps explain why
    • birds and
    • reptiles share a number of inherited characteristics.
  11. Darwin’s concept of natural
    selection was NOT influenced by
    the work of Gregor Mendel
  12. Charles Darwin viewed the
    fossil record as
    • useful support for his
    • theory
  13. Modern sea star larvae
    resemble some primitive vertebrate larvae. This similarity may suggest that
    primitive vertebrates
    evolved before sea stars
  14. Molecular evidence in
    support of natural selection includes
    • the nearly universal
    • genetic code.
  15. . Which characteristic of
    Galápagos finches helped the Grants show the results of natural selection?
    . the size and shape of their beaks
  16. . On the Galápagos Islands, Charles Darwin observed
    species similar to mainland South American species.
  17. James Hutton’s and Charles Lyell’s work suggests
    • . Earth is several
    • million years old
  18. In an
    experiment, suppose that the wings of fruit flies were clipped short for fifty
    generations. The fifty-first generation emerged with normal-length wings. This
    observation would tend to disprove the idea that evolution is based on
    inheritance of acquired characteristics.
  19. The economist Thomas Malthus suggested that
    • without certain checks on population size, there
    • would soon be insufficient food for the growing human population
  20. According to Darwin’s theory of natural selection,
    individuals who survive are the ones best adapted for their environment. Their
    survival is due to the
    • . possession of
    • inherited adaptations that maximize fitness
  21. Charles Darwin called the ability of an organism
    to survive and reproduce in its specific environment
  22. Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural
    selection explains each of the following EXCEPT how
    . traits are passed from parent to off spring.
  23. Biogeography is the study of
    where species and their ancestors live.
  24. The number and
    location of bones of many fossil vertebrates are similar to those in living
    vertebrates. This is evidence in support of which of the following concepts?
    common descent
  25. .
    In humans, the pelvis and femur, or thigh bone, are involved in walking. In
    whales, the pelvis and femur shown in Figure 16–1 are
    . vestigial structures
  26. What principle does
    the Grants’ investigation of finch adaptation in the Galápagos
    Islands best support?
    natural selection
  27. The species of finches that Charles Darwin found
    on different Galápagos Islands varied in
    certain adaptations. One of the most significant was
    shape of beaks.