Bio Chapter 16
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noticed that many organisms seemed well suited to
- . surviving in the environments in which they
Based on the adaptations
Charles Darwin observed in finches and tortoises in the Galápagos, he wondered
- finches and tortoises had originated from the same ancestral species.
Which of the following ideas
is supported by Darwin’s observation of local variation among tortoises in the
In the 1800s, Charles Lyell
- past geological events must
- be explained in terms of processes observable today.
Lamarck’s ideas about evolution include the concept that
differences among the traits of organisms arise as a result of
- . the actions of
- organisms as they use or fail to use body structures.
The economist Thomas
Malthus suggested that
- without certain checks on
- population size, there would soon be insufficient food for the growing human
When a dairy farmer chooses
to breed the cows that give the most milk in the herd, the farmers are
following the principle of
of the following is a condition necessary for natural selection to occur EXCEPT
- there is
- heritable variation among members of the population.
statement about the members of a population that live long enough to reproduce
is consistent with the theory of evolution by natural selection?
- They are the ones that are
- best adapted to survive in their environment.
The principle of common
descent helps explain why
- birds and
- reptiles share a number of inherited characteristics.
Darwin’s concept of natural
selection was NOT influenced by
the work of Gregor Mendel
Charles Darwin viewed the
fossil record as
- useful support for his
Modern sea star larvae
resemble some primitive vertebrate larvae. This similarity may suggest that
evolved before sea stars
Molecular evidence in
support of natural selection includes
- the nearly universal
- genetic code.
. Which characteristic of
Galápagos finches helped the Grants show the results of natural selection?
. the size and shape of their beaks
. On the Galápagos Islands, Charles Darwin observed
species similar to mainland South American species.
James Hutton’s and Charles Lyell’s work suggests
- . Earth is several
- million years old
experiment, suppose that the wings of fruit flies were clipped short for fifty
generations. The fifty-first generation emerged with normal-length wings. This
observation would tend to disprove the idea that evolution is based on
inheritance of acquired characteristics.
The economist Thomas Malthus suggested that
- without certain checks on population size, there
- would soon be insufficient food for the growing human population
According to Darwin’s theory of natural selection,
individuals who survive are the ones best adapted for their environment. Their
survival is due to the
- . possession of
- inherited adaptations that maximize fitness
Charles Darwin called the ability of an organism
to survive and reproduce in its specific environment
Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural
selection explains each of the following EXCEPT how
. traits are passed from parent to off spring.
Biogeography is the study of
where species and their ancestors live.
The number and
location of bones of many fossil vertebrates are similar to those in living
vertebrates. This is evidence in support of which of the following concepts?
In humans, the pelvis and femur, or thigh bone, are involved in walking. In
whales, the pelvis and femur shown in Figure 16–1 are
. vestigial structures
What principle does
the Grants’ investigation of finch adaptation in the Galápagos
Islands best support?
The species of finches that Charles Darwin found
on different Galápagos Islands varied in
certain adaptations. One of the most significant was
shape of beaks.
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