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land perodically underwater.
- organsisms that can't swim against currents. Drifters.
- drifting plants= phytoplankton
- drifting animals= zooplankton
Nutrient rich zone near the shore. Abundant and diverse plants and animals.
Zone at the bottom.
increase in the amount of nutrients in an aquatic ecosystem.
- Area in which fresh water from a river mixes with salt water from the ocean.
- Many nutrients and abundant life.
- Where rivers deposit mineral-rich mud in estuaries.
- Absorb pollutants, protect inland, and serve as "nursery."
- Trees growing in shallow salt water.
- Tropical and Subtropical.
- Protect coast and are large habitats.
- Islands that run parallel to shores.
- Protect mainland and wetland from storms and waves.
- limestone ridges built by coral polyps (limestone skeletons).
- Senstivive in warm, shallow water. House many organisms.
All the members of a species living in the same place at the same time.
Number of individuals per unit area.
- Even, clumped, or random.
The maximum number of offspring each individual can produce.
Average time for a member of the population to reach reproduction age.
- Population keeps growing faster.
- Ex: 2 dogs -> 6 puppies. Those 3 pair dogs -> 6 more puppies each. Those 9 pairs (18 puppies) etc, etc.
The maximum population an ecosystem can support indefinately.
Death due to high density (disease, predation, limiting resource, etc)
- death not related to density.
- Weather, disasters, age, etc.
A species' physical home, the environmental factors necessary for its survival, and it's interactions with other organisms.
- Different individuals or populations attempt to use the same limited resource.
- Harmed Harmed
When members of different species compete.
Predation & Parasitism
- species A feeds on species B.
- Benefit harmed
- Each species benefits each other.
- Ex: Bacteria breaks down food & you give it home, etc
- One species benefits & the other is not effected.
- Ex: Flower lives on tree.
- Two species live in close association.
- Usually leads to coevolution.
The number of different species in a given area.
Piece of DNA that codes for a specific trait that can be inherited by the offspring.
Species clearly critical to the functioning of an ecosystem.
Tourism that supports the conservation and sustainable development of ecologically unique areas.
Species likely to become extinct if protective measures aren't taken immediately.
Species that has a declining population and is likely to become endangered if not protected.
Species not native to a particular region.
Species native and found in only a certain area.
any form of genetic material usually in germ cells.
Endangered Species Act
- law that protects species in danger of extinction.
- -USFWS must make a list of all threatened and endangered species
- -These species can't be caught, killed, sold, or traded.
- -Gov can't carry out anything that jeopardizes these species.
- -USFWS must make a recovery plan for each of the species.
Habitat conservation plan
Plan that attempts to protect one or more species across large areas of land through trade-offs or agreements.
Goal to preserve biodiversity and ensure the sustainable and fair use of genetic resources in all countries.
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