outer ear, middle ear, inner ear, and auditory nerve pathway to the brain
The ear acts as a __________.
The ear converts acoustic pressure waves to ________ energy in the middle ear and to ________ energy in the innter ear.
Name the 2 parts that make up the outer ear
pinna and external auditory meatus
The ______ is the external portion of the outer ear that is made of flexible elastic cartilage.
What are the main functions of the pinna?
to channel sound waves into the ear and to aid in localization
The _____________ leads from the pinna to the tympanic membrane.
external auditory meatus/ear canal
What part of the ear is a tube lined with a layer of epithelium and cilia?
external auditory meatus
What is the name of the waxy substance that is produced by the glands in the external auditory meatus?
Name 2 functions of the ear canal.
It protects the middle and inner ear.
It plays an important role in sound detection because it is a quarter-wave resonator
T/F The ear canal is a quarter wave resonator because it is open at the pinna and closed at the tympanic membrane.
T/F The external auditory meatus resonates and boosts the amplitude of high frequency sounds entering the ear.
Together, the pinna and ear canal create about how many dB of amplification in high frequency sounds?
about 10-15 dB
The ________ is a semi-transparent oval-shaped membrane that acts as the boundary between the outer and middle ears.
The tympanic membrane is conical in shape, what is the name of the tip of the cone called?
Which of the 3 middle ear bones is embedded within the TM?
What is the chain of middle ear bones called? Name the 3 bones.
ossicles; malleus, incus, and stapes
The primary function of the TM is to _______ when acoustic pressure waves impinge upon it.
Which of the ossicles articulates with the oval window of the cochlea?
Which of the ossicles articulates with both the malleus and the stapes?
T/F The ossicles are the smallest bones in the human body.
The handle of the malleus is known as the __________.
The malleus and the incus are both about _____ mm in length?
about 8 mm
Which bone is also known as the hammer? As the stirrup? As the anvil?
hammer = malleus
stirrup = stapes
anvil = incus
What is held in place by ligaments and forms the mechanical vibrating element of the auditory system?
the ossicular chain
What are the 2 muscles of the middle ear?
stapedius and tensor tympani
Which middle ear muscle runs from the posterio wall of the tympanic cavity to the head of the stapes?
Which middle ear muscle is involved in the acoustic reflex?
What is it called when the stapedius muscle contracts strongly in response to intense sound of 80dB or more?
T/F The acoustic reflex can damp sounds by about 10 dB.
Which middle ear muscle runs parallel to the auditory tube (eustachian tube)?
Which middle ear muscle is involved in auditory tube function?
Which middle ear muscle originates at the tendon of the tensor veli palatini muscle, passes through a bony canal in the temporal lobe of the cranium, emerges into the tympanic cavity, and connects to the manubrium of the malleus?
About how many cm long is the auditory tube/eustachian tube?
about 3.5 cm long
Which parts of the ET lie in a canal made of cartilage? In a bony canal?
front-most 2/3 in cartilage tube
posterior 1/3 in bony canal
The auditory tube runs from the _________ to the __________.
nasopharynx to the middle ear
T/F The pharyngeal opening of the auditory tube is usually open, except during a swallow or yawn, when it closes.
False-it is usually closed.
T/F The part of the auditory tube that connects to the middle ear is usually closed.
False-it is usually open.
The bulge in the lateral pharyngeal wall where the auditory tube opens into the pharyx is called the __________.
What is the primary muscle that opens the auditory tube?
tensor veli palatini
What is the medical term for middle ear infections?
T/F The auditory tube helps drain middle ear fluid by channeling it into the pharyx, where it is swallowed.
The auditory tube also helps to _________ the air pressure in the middle ear and in the external atmosphere.
___________ is a measure of how easily signals are transmitted through a medium.
T/F The middle ear reduces the amount of acoustic energy that gets transmitted into the inner ear by overcoming the impedance mismatch.
false-it increases the amount of acoustic energy
The inner ear is composed of what 3 parts?
cochlea, semi-circular canals, and a connecting vestibule between them
The __________ is involved with hearing, whereas the _________ and ________ are involved with balance.
cochlea; semicircular canals & vestibule
The ________ is a snail shaped, bony, spiral canal that makes two and three quarter turns.
The fluid between the bony and membranous canal of the cochlea is called ___________.
The membranous canal is filled with fluid called ____________.
The _________ divides the inside of the cochlea along its length (also known as the cochlear partition).
The ________ is the base of the cochlear duct.
The roof of the cochlear duct is formed by the _________.
The space closest to the vestibular membrane is known as the _________, and the space neares the basilar membrane is the _________.
scala vestibuli; scala tympani
The point of communication between the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani is called the ____________.
The sensory nerve receptor for hearing is the ____________.
organ of Corti
The inner and outer hair cells of the organ of Corti are embedded in the _______________.
There are about ___________ inner hair cells and ______________ outer hair cells.
3,500 and 20,000
The __________ plays a crucial role in the cochlea's ability to perform a frequency and intesity analysis of all incoming sounds.
The arrangement of the frequency of sensitivity is organized how?
The cochlea performs what kind of analysis of complex sounds?
A ___________ hearing loss is one that interferes with the transmission of the sound wave on its way to the inner ear.
______________ is a condition in which the formation of bone around the stapes prevents it from being set into vibration.
Conditions that affect the inner ear result in a _________ hearing loss.
A combination of conductive and sensorineural hearing losses results in what type of loss?
mixed hearing loss
_____________ is a measure of how easily a system can be set into vibration by a driving force.
Immittance includes two reciprocal terms-what are they?
admittance and impedance
_________ refers to how easily energy is transmitted through a system and is measured in units called siemens.
_________ describes how a system opposes the flow of energy grhough it and is measured in units called ohms.
Immittance is measured on an instrument called a ____________ and the results are displayed on a graph called a __________.
A ____________ is a graph that represents changes in the immitance of the middle ear vibratory system as air pressure is varied in the external ear canal.
T/F Immittance of the normal middle ear is greatest when the air pressure in the external ear canal and the middle ear cavity are the same.
When performing tympanometry, what is the anme of the piece that you put into the client's ear?
To measure immittance, a probe signal of ____ dB is transmitted into the ear canal by the probe tip.
Which shape of tympanogram is indicative of normal middle ear function?
type A tymp
Type B tymps are typical of what middle ear conditions?
otitis media and PE tubes
Which type of tympanogram is typical of conditions in which the auditory tube does not function normally resulting in negtive middle ear pressure?
___________ are extremely low-intesity sounds that originate in the cochlea as the cochlea is processing incoming sound.
otoacoustic emissions (OAEs)
What are the 2 categories of OAEs?
spontaneous and evoked
Which type of OAE occur without any incoming auditory stimulation in individuals with normal hearing?
T/F Women and infants demonstrate twice as many spontaneous OEAs as males.
Which type of OAE occur in response to acoustic stimulation to the ear?
T/F Evoked OAEs are clinically important because nearly everyone with normal hearing sensitivity demonstrates them, whereas they are absent in people with even mild degrees of sensory hearing loss.
T/F A sensorineural hearing loss would interfere with the acoustic signal of an EOAE.
False-a conductive loss would interfere with the signal going to the cochlea and away from the cochlea
T/F If a child has otitis media, you can still get reliable results from an EOAE.
According to our text, the most valuable use of EOAEs is in _____________.
Our book states that the average age at which chldren with significant hearing impairment are identified is estimated at being between what two ages?
18 and 30 months of age
A ______________ is an electronic device designed to directly stimulate the auditory nerve by bypassing a person's damaged cochlea.
Name the 4 major components of a cochlear implant.
microphone, signal processor, external transmittor, and implanted electrodes
Vowels are characterized by distinct patterns of vocal tract resonances known as ________.
Vowels are both _________ in duration and more _________ than consonants.
Which vowel has the greatest intensity?
What type of sound forms the nucleus/main portion of syllables?
When the F1/F2 vowel space becomes reduced and the forman patterns of different vowels become similar to each other, we call this _______________.
What type of sound is perceived on the basis of formant transitions?
T/F When identifying a diphthong, the exact formant frequencies are more important than how quickly the formants change.
False-speed is the most salient cue
T/F The formant transitions in liquids are slower than those of diphthongs.
False-they are faster than those of diphthongs
T/F The glides are characterized by transitions that are shorter in duration than those of diphthongs.
Which class of sounds is recognized on the basis of their internal formant structure as well as on the basis of the formant transitions of the vowels occurring before and after that sound?
Nasal sounds have an extra formant-what is it called?
Which class of sounds is perceived on the basis of numerous acoustic cues that are intertwined with the acoustic cues for the vowels and consonants surrounding the phoneme?
T/F The noise in fricatives is shorter than that of stops.
false-it is longer
In an affricate ____________ refers to how long it takes for the amplitude envelope to reach its highest value.