First Aid Classic_Presentations/Lab_Findings/Key_Associations

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First Aid Classic_Presentations/Lab_Findings/Key_Associations
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2013-06-04 15:24:17
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  1. Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
    Budd-Chiari syndrome (posthepatic venous thrombosis)
  2. Achilles tendon xanthoma
    Familial hypercholesterolemia
  3. Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
    Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (meningococcemi)
  4. Arachnodactyly, lens dislocation, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
    Marfan's syndrome (fibrillin defect)
  5. Athlete with polycythemia
    Erythropoietin injection
  6. Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
    Pott's disease (vertebral tuberculosis)
  7. Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
    Sarcoidosis (noncaseating granulomas)
  8. Blue sclera
    Osteogensis imperfecta (collagen defect)
  9. Blue sclera
    Osteogenesis imperfecta (collagen defect)
  10. Bluish line on gingiva
    Burton's line (lead poisoning)
  11. Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
    Paget's disease of bone (increased osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity)
  12. Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
    Aortic regurgitation
  13. Cafe-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma)
    Neurofibromatosis type I(+ pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas)

    Neurofibromatosis II (+bilateral acoustic neuromas)
  14. Cafe-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
    McCune-Albright syndrome (mosaic G-protein signaling mutation)
  15. Calf pseudohypertrophy
    Muscular dystrophy (most commonly Duchenne's)
  16. Cherry-red spot on macula
    Tay-Sachs (ganglioside accumulation) or Niemann-Pick (sphingomyelin accumulation), central retinal artery occlusion
  17. Chest pain, pericardial effusion/friction rub, persistent fever following MI
    Dressler's syndrome (autoimmune-mediated post-MI fibrinous pericarditis, 1-12 weeks after acute episode)
  18. Child uses arms to stand up from quat
    Gowers' sign (Duchenne muscular dystrophy; X-linked recessive deleted dystrophin gene)
  19. Child with fever develops red rash on face that spreads to body
    "Slapped cheeks" (erythema infectiosum/fifth disease: parvovirus B19)
  20. Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
    Huntington's disease (autosomal-dominant CAG repeat expansion)
  21. Chronic exercise interolance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
    McArdle's disease (muscle phosphorylase deficiency)
  22. Cold intolerance
    Hypothyroidism
  23. Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
    Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (damage to MLF; bilateral (multiple sclerosis),  unilateral (stroke)
  24. Continuous machinery heart murmur
    PDA (close with indomethacin; open with misoprostol)
  25. Cutaneous/dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
    Myxedema (hypothyroidism, Graves' disease)
  26. Dark purple skin/mouth nodules
    Kaposi's sarcoma (usually AIDS patients (gay men): associated with HHV-8)
  27. Deep, labored breathing/hyperventilation
    Kussmaul breathing (diabetic ketoacidosis)
  28. Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
    Pellagra (niacin(vitamin B3) deficiency)
  29. Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
    Wet beriberi (thiamine (viatmin B1) deficiency)
  30. Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
    Pasteurella multocida (cellulitis at inoculation site)
  31. Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
    Sjogren's syndrome (autoimmune destruction of exocrine glands)
  32. Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
    Plummer-Vinson syndrome (may progress to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma)
  33. Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
    Ehler's-Danlos syndrome (collagen defect, usually type III)
  34. Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
    Virchow's node (abdominal metastasis)
  35. Erythroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
    Sezary Syndrome (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) or mycosis fungoides
  36. Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
    Chvostek's sign (hypocalcemia)
  37. Fat, female, forty, and fertile
    Acute choleithiasis (bile duct blockage)
  38. Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
    Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (rapid lysis of spirochetes results in toxin release)
  39. Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
    Measles (Morbillivirus)
  40. Fever, night sweats, weight loss
    B symptoms (lymphoma)
  41. Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
    Peyronie's disease (connective tissue disorder)
  42. Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
    Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (HGPRT deficiency, X-linked recessive)
  43. Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
    Kayser-Fleischer syndrome (copper accumulation from Wilson's disease)
  44. Hamartomatous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth/feet/hands
    Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (genetic benign polyposis can cause bowel obstruction; increased cancer risk)
  45. Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
    Gaucher's disease (glucocerebrosidase deficiency)
  46. Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
    Alport's syndrome (type IV collagen mutation)
  47. Hypercoagulability (leading to migrating DVTs and vasculitis)
    Trousseau's sign (adenocarcinoma of pancreas or lungs)
  48. Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
    Kluver-Bucy syndrome (bilateral amygdala lesion)
  49. Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis
    Conn's syndrome
  50. Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
    "Blue bloater" (chronic bronchitis: hyperplasia of mucous cells)
  51. Indurated, ulcerated genital lesion
    Nonpainful: chancre (primary syphilis, Treponema pallidum)

    Painful, with exudate: chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)
  52. Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
    Niemann-Pick disease (genetic sphingomyelinase deficiency)
  53. Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
    Cori's disease (debranching enzyme deficiency)
  54. Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
    Edwards' syndrome (trisomy 18)
  55. Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
    Charcot's triad 2 (ascending cholangitis)
  56. Keratin pearls on a skin biopsy
    Squamous cell carcinoma
  57. Large rash with bull's eye appearance
    Erythema chronicum migrans from Ixodes tick bite (Lyme disease: Borrelia)
  58. Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
    Epidural hematoma (middle meningeal artery rupture)
  59. Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
    Bruton's disease (X-linked agammaglobulinemia)
  60. Mucosal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
    Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (defect in platelet aggregation due to lack of GpIIb/IIIa)
  61. Multiple colon polyps, osteomas/soft tissue tumors, impacted/supernumerary teeth
    Gardner's syndrome (subtype of FAP)
  62. Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis
    Wegener's (c-ANCA) positive and Goodpasture's syndromes (anti-basement membrane antibodies)
  63. Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
    Erb-Duchenne palsy (superior trunk (C5-C6) brachial plexus injury: waiter's tip)
  64. No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
    Sheehan's syndrome (pituitary infarction)
  65. Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia
    Multiple sclerosis
  66. Oscillating slow/fast breathing
    Cheyne-Stokes respirations (central apnea in CHF or increased intracranial pressure)
  67. Painful blue fingers/toes, hemolytic anemia
    Cold agglutinin disease (autoimmune hemolytic anemia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, infectious mononucleosis)
  68. Painful, pale, cold fingers/toes
    Raynaud's syndrome (vasospasm in extremities)
  69. Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
    Osler's node (infective endocarditis)
  70. Painless erythematous lesions on palms and soles
    Janeway lesions (infective endocarditis)
  71. Painless jaundice
    Cancer of the pancreatic head obstructing bile duct
  72. Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
    Henoch-Schonlein purpura (IgA vasculitis affecting skin and kindneys)
  73. Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
    Wermer's syndrome (MEN 1)
  74. Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
    Pink puffer (emphysema: centroacinar (smoking), panacinar (alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency)
  75. Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
    Fanconi's syndrome (proximal tubular reabsorption defect)
  76. Positive anterior "drawer sign"
    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury
  77. Ptosis, miosis, anhidrosis
    Horner's syndrome (sympathetic chain lesion)
  78. Pupil accommodates but doesn't react
    Argyll Robertson pupil (neurosyphilis)
  79. Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
    Gulliain-Barre syndrome (autoimmune acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy)
  80. Rash on palms and soles
    2ndary syphilis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever
  81. Recurrent colds, unusual eczema, high serum IgE
    Job's syndrome (hyper-IgE syndrome: neutrophil chemotaxis abnormality)
  82. Red "currant jelly" sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
    Klebsiella pneumoniae
  83. Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple/areola
    Paget's disease of the breast (represents underlying neoplasm)
  84. Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
  85. Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
    von Hippel-Lindau disease (dominant tumor suppressor gene mutation)
  86. Resting temor, rigidity, alkinesia, postural instability
    Parkinson's disease (nigrostriatal dopamine deficiency)
  87. Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
    Pompe's disease (lysosomal glucosidase deficiency)
  88. Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
    Roth's spots (bacterial endocarditis)
  89. Severe jaundice in neonate
    Crigler-Najjar syndrome (congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)
  90. Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
    McBurney's sign (appendicitis)
  91. Short stature, increased incidence of tumors/leukemia, aplastic anemia
    Fanconi's anemia (genetically inherited; often progresses to AML)
  92. Single palm crease
    Simian crease (Down syndrome)
  93. Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
    Kartagener's syndrome (dynein defect affecting cilia)
  94. Skin hyperpigmentation
    Addison's disease(primary adrenocortical insufficiency of autoimmune or infectious etiology)
  95. Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
    Becker's muscular dystrophy (X-linked, defective dystrophin, less severe than Duchenne's)
  96. Small, irregular red spots on buccal/linguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
    Koplik spots (measles)
  97. Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
    Condylomata lata (secondary syphilis)
  98. Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
    Bacterial endocarditis
  99. Strawberry tongue
    Scarlet fever, Kawasaki disease, toxic shock syndrome
  100. Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
    Turner syndrome (XO, short stature, webbed neck, lymphedema)
  101. Sudden swollen/painful big toe joint, tophi
    Gout/podagra (hyperuricemia)
  102. Swollen gums, mucous bleeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
    Scurvy (vitamin C defiency: can't hydroxylate proline/lysine for collagen synthesis)
  103. Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
    Osteoarthritis (osteophytes on PIP (Bouchard's nodes), DIP (Heberden's nodes)
  104. Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
    Aortic valve stenosis
  105. Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
    Sipple's syndrome (MEN 2A)
  106. Toe extension/fanning upon plantar scrape
    Babinski's sign (LMN lesion)
  107. Unilateral facial drooping involving forehead
    Bell's palsy (LMN CN VII palsy)
  108. Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
    Reiter's syndrome (reactive arthritis associated with HLA-B27)
  109. Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
    Hemangioma (benign but associated with Sturge-Weber syndrome)
  110. Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
    Shwartzman reaction (following second exposure to endotoxin)
  111. Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacterations
    Mallory-Weiss syndrome (alcoholic and bulimic patients)
  112. Waxy casts with very low urine flow
    Chronic end-stage renal disease
  113. WBC casts in urine
    Acute pyelonephritis
  114. Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
    Whipple's disease (Tropheryma whippelii)
  115. "Worst headache of my life"
    Subarachnoid hemorrhage
  116. Anticentromere antibodies
    Scleroderma (CREST)
  117. Antidesmoglein (epithelial) antibodies
    Pemphigus vulgaris (blistering)
  118. Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies
    Goodpasture's syndrome (glomerulonephritis and hemoptysis)
  119. Antihistone antibodies
    Drug-induced SLE (hydralzine, isoniazid, phenytoin, procainamide)
  120. Anti-IgG antibodies
    Rheumatoid arthritis (systemic inflammation, joint pannus, boutonniere deformity)
  121. Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs)
    Primary biliary cirrhosis (female, cholestasis, portal HTN)
  122. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs)
    Vasculitis (c-ANCA: Wegener's; p-ANCA: microscopic polyangitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome)
  123. Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs: anti-Smith and anti-dsDNA)
    SLE (type III hypersensitivity)
  124. Antiplatelet antibodies
    Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) (bleeding diathesis)
  125. Anti-topoisomerase antibodies
    Diffuse systemic scleroderma
  126. Anti-transglutaminase/antigliadin/anti-endomysial antibodies
    Celiac disease (diarrhea, distention, weight loss)
  127. Azurophilic granular needles in leukemic blasts
    Auer rods (acute myelogenous leukemia: especially the promyelocytic type)
  128. "Bamboo spine" on x-ray
    Ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammatory arthritis: HLA-B27)
  129. Basophilic nuclear remnants in RBCs
    Howell-Jolly bodies (due to splenectomy or nonfunctional spleen)
  130. Basophilic stippling of RBCs
    Lead poisoning or sideroblastic anemia
  131. Blood tap on LP
    Subarachnoid hemorrhage
  132. "Boot-shaped" heart on x-ray
    Tetralogy of Fallot, RVH
  133. Branching gram-positive rods with sulfur granules
    Actinomyces israelii
  134. Bronchogenic apical lung tumor
    Pancoast's tumor (can compress sympathetic ganglion and cause Horner's syndrome)
  135. "brown" tumor of bone
    • Hemorrhage (hemosiderin) causes brown color of osteolytic cysts. Due to:
    • 1) Hyperparathyroidism
    • 2) Osteitis fibrosa cystica
  136. Cardiomegaly with apical atrophy
    Chagas' disease (Trypanosoma cruzi)
  137. Cellular crescents in Bowman's capsule
    Rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis
  138. "Chocolate cyst" of ovary
    Endometriosis (frequently involves both ovaries)
  139. Circular grouping of dark tumor cells surrounding pale neurofibrils
    Homer Wright rosettes (neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, retinoblastoma)
  140. Colonies of mucoid Pseudomonas in lungs
    Cystic fibrosis (CFTR mutation in Caucasians resulting in fat-soluble vitamin defiency and mucous plugs)
  141. Degeneration of dorsal column nerves
    Tabes dorsalis (tertiary syphilis)
  142. Depigmentation of neurons in substantia
    Parkinson's disease (basal ganglia disorder: rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia)
  143. Desquamated epithelium casts in sputum
    Curschmann's spirals (bronchial asthma; can result in whorled mucus plus)
  144. Disarrayed granulosa cells in eosinophilic fluid
    Call-Exner bodies (granulosa-theca cell tumor of the ovary)
  145. Dysplastic squamous cervical cells with nuclear enlargement and hyperchromasia
    Koilocytes (HPV: predisposes to cervical cancer)
  146. Enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies
    "Owl's-eye" appearance of CMV
  147. Enlarged thryoid cells with ground-glass nuclei
    "Orphan Annie" eye nuclei (papillary carcinoma of the thyroid)
  148. Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in liver cell
    Mallory bodies (alcoholic liver disease)
  149. Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in nerve cell
    Lewy body (Parkinson's disease)
  150. Eosinophilic globule in liver
    Councilman body (toxic or viral hepatitis, often yellow fever)
  151. Eosinophilic inclusion bodies in cytoplasm of hippocampal nerve cells
    Rabies virus (Lyssavirus)
  152. Extracellular amyloid deposition in gray matter of brain
    Senile plaques (Alzheimer's disease)
  153. Giant B cells with bilobed nuclei with prominent inclusions ("owl's eye")
    Reed-Sternberg cells (Hodgkin's lymphoma)
  154. Glomerulus-like structure surrounding vessel in germ cells
    Schiller-Duval bodies (yolk sac tumor)
  155. "Hair-on-end" (crew cut) appearance on x-ray
    Beta-thalassemia, sickle cell anemia (marrow expansion)
  156. hCG elevated
    Choriocarcinoma, hydatidiform mole (occurs with and without embryo)
  157. Heart nodules (inflammatory)
    Aschoff bodies (rheumatic fever)
  158. Heterophile antibodies
    Infectious mononucleosis (EBV)
  159. Hexagonal, double-pointed, needle-like crystals in bronchial secretions
    Bronchial asthma (Charcot-Leyden crystals: eosinophilic granules)
  160. High level of D-dimers
    DVT, pulmonary embolism, DIC
  161. Hilar lymphadenopathy, peripheral granulomatous lesion in middle or lower lung lobes (can calcify)
    Ghon complex (Primary TB: Mycobacterium bacilli)
  162. Honeycomb lung on x-ray
    Interstitial fibrosis
  163. Hypersegmented neutrophils
    Megaloblastic anemia (B12, folate deficiency)
  164. Hyperchromic, microcytic anemia
    Iron deficiency anemia, lead poisoning, thalassemia (HbF sometimes present)
  165. Increased alpha-fetoprotein in amniotic fluid/maternal serum
    Anencephaly, spina bifida (neural tube defects)
  166. Increased uric acid levels
    Gout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, tumor lysis syndrome, loop and thiazide diurectics
  167. Intranuclear eosinophilic droplet-like bodies
    Cowdry A type bodies (HSV or CMV)
  168. Iron-containing nodules in alveolar septum
    Ferruginous bodies (asbestosis: increased chance of mesothelioma)
  169. Large lysosomal vesicles in phagocytes, immunodeficiency
    Chediak-Higashi disease (congenital failure of phagolysosome formation)
  170. Low serum ceruloplasmin
    Wilson's disease (hepatolenticular degeneration)
  171. "Lumpy-bumpy" appearance of glomeruli on immunofluorescence
    Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (immune complex deposition of IgG and C3b)
  172. Lytic (hole punched) bone lesions on x-ray
    Multiple myeloma
  173. Mammary gland (blue-domed) cyst
    Fibrocystic change of the breast
  174. Monoclonal antibody spike
    • 1) Multiple myeloma (called the M protein; usually IgG or IgA)
    • 2) Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS; normal consequence of aging)
    • 3) Waldenstrom's (M protein = IgM) macroglobulinemia
    • 4) Primary amyloidosis
  175. Monoclonal globulin protein in blood/urine
    Bence Jones proteins (multiple myeloma [kappa or lamda Ig light chains in urine])

    Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (IgM)
  176. Mucin-filled cell with peripheral nucleus
    Signet ring (gastric carcinoma)
  177. Narrowing of bowel lumen on barium radiograph
    "String sign" (Crohn's disease)
  178. Needle-shaped, negatively birefringent crystals
    Gout (hyperuricemia)
  179. Nodular hyaline deposits in glomeruli
    Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules (diabetic nephropathy)
  180. "Nutmeg" apperance of liver
    Chronic passive congestion of liver d/t right heart failure
  181. "Onion-skin" periosteal reaction
    Ewing's sarcoma (malignant round-cell tumor)
  182. Periosteum raised from bone, creating triangular area.
    Codman's triangle on x-ray (osteosarcomaa, Ewing's sarcoma, pyogenic osteomyelitis)
  183. Podocyte fusion on EM
    Minimal change disease (child with nephrotic syndrome)
  184. Polished, "ivory-like" appearance of bone at cartilage erosion
    Eburnation (osteoarthritis resulting in bony sclerosis)
  185. Protein aggregates in neurons from hyperphosphorylation of protein tau
    Neurofibrillary tangles (Alzehimer's disease and CID)
  186. Pseudopalisading tumor cells on brain biopsy
    Glioblastoma multiforme
  187. RBC casts in urine
    Acute glomerulonephritis
  188. Rectangular, crystal-like, cytoplasmic inclusions in Leydig cells
    Reinke crystals (Leydig cell tumor)
  189. Renal epithelial casts in urine
    Acute toxic/viral nephrosis
  190. Rhomboid crystals, positively birefringent
    Pseudogout (calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate)
  191. Rib notching
    Coarctation of the aorta
  192. Sheets of medium-sized lymphoid cells ("starry sky" appearance on histology)
    Burkitt's lymphoma (t8;14) c-myc activation, associated with EBV
  193. Silver-staining spherical aggregation of tau proteins in neurons
    Pick bodies (Pick's disease: progressive dementia, similar to Alzheimer's)
  194. "Soap bubble" in femur or tibia on x-ray
    Giant cell tumor of bone (generally benign)
  195. "Spikes" on basement membrane, "dome-like" subepithelial deposits
    Membranous glomerulonephritis (may progres to nephrotic syndrome)
  196. Stacks of red blood cells
    Rouleaux formation (high ESR, multiple myeloma)
  197. Stippled vaginal epithelial cells
    "Clue cells" (Gardnerella vaginalis)
  198. "Tennis-racket" shaped cytoplasmic organelles (EM) in Langerhans cells
    Birbeck granules (histocytosis X: eosinophilic granuloma)
  199. Thrombi made of white/red layers
    Lines of Zahn (arterial thrombus, layers of platelets/RBCs)
  200. "Thumb sign" on lateral x-ray
    Epiglottitis (Haemophilus influenzae)
  201. Thyroidd-like appearance of kidney
    Chronic bacterial pyelonephritis
  202. "Tram-track" appearance on LM
    Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
  203. Triglyceride accumulation in liver cell vacuoles
    Fatty liver disease (alcoholic or metabolic syndrome)
  204. WBCs that look "smudged"
    CLL (almost always B cell; affects the elderly)
  205. "Wire-loop" glomerular appearance on LM
    Lupus nephropathy
  206. Yellow CSF
    Xanthochromia (subarachnoid hemorrhage)
  207. Actinic (solar) keratosis
    Precursor to squamous cell carcinoma
  208. Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury
    Cushing's ulcer (Increased ICP stimulates vagal gastric secretion)
  209. Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns
    Curling's ulcer (greatly reduced plasma volume resuts in sloughing of gastric mucosa)
  210. Alternating areas of transmural inflammation and normal colon.
    Skin lesions (Crohn's disease)
  211. Aneurysm, dissecting
    HTN
  212. Aortic aneuryms, abdominal and descending aorta
    Atherosclerosis
  213. Aortic aneurysm, ascending
    Tertiary syphilis, Marfan's syndrome
  214. Atrophy of the mammilary bodies
    Wernicke's encephalopathy (thiamine deficiency causing ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and confusion)
  215. Autosplenectomy (fibrosis and shrinkage)
    Sickle cell anemia (HbS)
  216. Bacteria associated with stomach cancer
    H. Pylori
  217. Bacterial meningitis (adults and elderly)
    Neisseria meningitidis
  218. Bacterial meningitis (newborns and kids)
    Group B streptococcus (newborns), S. pneumoniae/Neisseria meningitidis (kids)
  219. Benign melanocytic nevus
    Spitz nevus (most common in first two decades)
  220. Bleeding disorder with GpIb deficiency
    Bernard-Soulier disease (defect in platelet adhesion to von Willebrand's factor)
  221. Brain tumor (adults)
    Supratentorial: mets>astrocytoma (including glioblastoma multiforme) > meningioma > schwannoma
  222. Brain tumors (kids)
    Infratentorial: astrocytoma >medulloblastoma (cerebellum) > ependymomma

    or

    Supratentorial: craniopharyngioma (cerebrum)
  223. Breast cancer
    Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (in the U.S., 1 in 9 women will develop breast cancer)
  224. Breast mass
    • 1. Fibrocystic change
    • 2. Carcinoma (in postmenopausal women)
  225. Breast tumor (benign)
    Fibroadenoma
  226. Primary Cardiac tumor (kids)
    Rhabdomyoma
  227. Cardiac manifestation of lupus
    Libman-Sacks endocarditis (nonbacterial, affecting mitral)
  228. Cardiac tumor (adults)
    • 1. Metastasis
    • 2. Primary myxoma (4:1 left to right atrium; "ball and wave")
  229. Cerebellar tonsilar herniation
    Chiari malformation (often presents with progressive hydrocephalus or syringomyelia)
  230. Chronic arrhythmia
    Atrial fibrillation (associated with high risk of emboli)
  231. Chronic atrophic gastritis (autoimmune)
    Predisposition to gastric carcinoma (can also cause pernicious anemia)
  232. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina
    DES exposure in utero
  233. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hypotension
    21-hydroxylase deficiency
  234. Congenital cardiac anomaly
    VSD
  235. Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver)
    Dublin-Johnson syndrome (inability of hepatocytes to secrete conjugated bilirubin into bile)
  236. Constrictive pericarditis in developing world
    Tuberculosis
  237. Coronary artery involved in thrombosis
    LAD>RCA>LCA
  238. Cretinism
    Iodine deficit/hypothyroidism
  239. Cushing's syndrome
    • 1. Corticosteroid therapy
    • 2. Excess ACTH secretion by pituitary
  240. Cyanosis (early; less common)
    Tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great vessels, truncus ateriosus
  241. Cyanosis (late; more common)
    VSD, ASD, PDA
  242. Death in CML
    Blast crisis
  243. Dementia
    • 1. Alzheimer's disease
    • 2. Multiple infarcts
  244. Demyelinating disease in young women
    Multiple sclerosis
  245. DIC
    Gram-negative sepsis, obstetric complication, cancer, burn trauma
  246. Dietary deficit
    Iron
  247. Diverticulum in pharynx
    Zenker's diverticulum (diagnosed by barium swallow)
  248. Ejection click
    Aortic/pulmonic stenosis
  249. Esophageal cancer
    Squamous cell carcinoma (worldwide); adenocarcinoma (US)
  250. Food poisoning (exotoxin mediated)
    S. aureus, B. cereus
  251. Glomerulonephritis (adults)
    Berger's disease (IgA nephropathy)
  252. Gynecologic malignancy
    Endometrial carcinoma (most common)
  253. Heart murmur, congenital
    Mitral valve prolapse
  254. Heart valve in bacterial endocarditis
    Mitral (rheumatic fever), tricuspid (IV drug abuse), aortic (2nd affected in rheumatic fever)
  255. Helminth infection (U.S.)
    • 1. Enterobiu vermicularis
    • 2. Ascaris lumbricoides
  256. Hematoma-epidural
    Rupture of middle meningeal artery (trauma; lentiform shaped)
  257. Hematoma-subdural
    Rupture of bridging veins (crescent shaped)
  258. Hemochromatosis
    Multiple blood transfusions or hereditary HFE mutation (can result in CHF, "bronze diabetes," and increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma)
  259. Hepatocellular carcinoma
    Cirrhotic liver (often associated with hepatitis B & C)
  260. Hereditary bleeding disorder
    von Willebrand's disease
  261. Hereditary harmless jaundice
    Gilbert's syndrome (benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)
  262. HLA-B27
    Anklyosing spondylitis, Reiter's syndrome, ulcerative colitis, psoriasis
  263. HLA-DR3 or DR4
    Diabetes mellitus type I, rheumatoid arthritis, SLE
  264. Holosystolic murmur
    VSD, tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regurgitation
  265. Hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, blood stasis
    Virchow's triad (results in venous thrombosis)
  266. Hypertension, secondary
    Renal disease
  267. Hypoparathyroidism
    Thyroidectomy
  268. Hypopituitarism
    Pituitary adenoma (usually benign tumor)
  269. Infection secondary to blood tranfusion
    hepatitis C
  270. Kidney stones
    • 1. Calcium = radiopaque
    • 2. Struvite (ammonium) = radiopaque (formed by urease-positive organisms such as Proteus vulgaris or Staphylococcus)
    • 3. Uric acid = radiolucent
  271. Late cyanotic shunt (uncorrected L --> R becomes R --> L)
    Eisenmenger's sydrome (caused by ASD, VSD, PDA; results in pulmonary HTN/polycythemia)
  272. Liver disease
    Alcoholic cirrhosis
  273. Most common Lysosomal storage disease
    Gaucher's disease
  274. Male cancer
    Prostatic carcinoma
  275. Malignancy associated with noninfectious fever
    Hodgkin's lymphoma
  276. Malignant skin tumor
    Basal cell carcinoma (rarely metastasizes)
  277. Mental retardation
    • 1. Down Syndrome
    • 2. Fragile X-syndrome
  278. Metastases to bone
    Breast, lung, thyroid, testes, prostate, kidney
  279. Metastases to brain
    Lung, breast, skin (melanoma), kidney (renal cell carcinoma), GI
  280. Metastases to liver
    Colon, gastric, pancreatic, breast, and lung carcinomas
  281. Mitral valve stenosis
    Rheumatic heart disease
  282. Mixed (UMN & LMN) motor neuron disease
    ALS
  283. Myocarditis
    Coxsackie B
  284. Neoplasm (kids)
    • 1. ALL
    • 2. Cerebellar medulloblastoma
  285. Nephrotic syndrome (adults)
    Segmental glomerulosclerosis
  286. Nephrotic syndrome (kids)
    Minimal change disease (associated with infections/vaccinations; treat with corticosteroids)
  287. Nosocomial pneumonia
    Klebsiella, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  288. Obstruction of male urinary tract
    BPH
  289. Opening snap
    Mitral stenosis
  290. Opportunistic infection in AIDs
    Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly carinii) pneumonia
  291. Osteomyelitis
    S. aureus
  292. Osteomyelitis in sickle cell disease patients
    Salmonella
  293. Osteomyelitis with IV drug use
    Pseudomonas, S. aureus
  294. Ovarian metastasis from gastric carcinoma or breast cancer
    Krukenberg tumor (mucin-secreting signet-ring cells)
  295. Ovarian tumor (benign)
    Serous cystadenoma
  296. Ovarian tumor malignant
    Serious cystadenocarcinoma
  297. Pancreatitis (acute)
    Gallstones, alcohol
  298. Pancreatitis (chronic)
    Alcohol (adults), cystic fibrosis (kids)
  299. Patients with ALL/CLL/AML/CML
    • ALL: child
    • CLL: adult>60
    • AML: adult>60
    • CML: adult 35-50
  300. Pelvic inflammatory disease
    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (monoarticular arthritis)
  301. Philadelphia chromosome t(9;22) (bcr-abl)
    CML (may sometimes be associated with ALL/AML)
  302. Pituitary tumor
    • 1. Prolactinoma
    • 2. Somatotropic "acidophilic" adenoma
  303. Primary amenorrhea
    Turner syndrome (XO)
  304. Primary bone tumor (adults)
    Multiple myeloma
  305. Primary hyperaldosteronism
    Adenoma of adrenal cortex
  306. Primary hyperparathyroidism
    • 1. Adenomas
    • 2. Hyperplasia
    • 3. Carcinoma
  307. Primary liver cancer
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hemochromatosis, alpha-1 antitrypsin)
  308. Pulmonary HTN
    COPD
  309. Recurrent inflammation/thrombosis of small/medium vessels in extremities
    Buerger's disease (strongly associated with tobacco)
  310. Renal tumor
    Renal cell carcinoma: associated with von Hippel-Lindau and adult polycystic kidney disease; paraneoplastic syndromes (erythropoietin, renin, PTH, ACTH)
  311. Right heart failure due to pulmonary cause
    Cor pulmonale
  312. S3 (prodiastolic gallop)
    Increased ventricular filling (L-->R shunt, mitral regurgitation, LV failure [CHF])
  313. S4 (presystolic gallop)
    Stiff/hypertrophic ventricle (aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy)
  314. Secondary hyperparathyroidism
    Hypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease
  315. Sexually transmitted disease
    Chlamydia (usually coinfected with gonorrhea)
  316. SIADH
    Small cell carcinoma of the lung
  317. Site of diverticula
    Sigmoid colon
  318. Sites of atherosclerosis
    Abdominal aorta > coronary > popliteal > carotid
  319. Stomach cancer
    Adenocarcinoma
  320. Stomach ulcerations and high gastrin levels
    Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma of duodenum or pancreas)
  321. t(14;18)
    Follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 activation)
  322. t(8;14)
    Burkitt's lymphoma (c-myc activation)
  323. t(9;22)
    Philadelphia chromosome, CML (bcr-abl hybrid)
  324. Temporal arteritis
    Risk of ipsilateral blindness due to thrombosis of ophthalmic artery; polymyalgia rheumatica
  325. Testicular tumor
    Seminoma
  326. Thyroid cancer
    Papillary carcinoma
  327. Tumor in women
    Leiomyoma (estrogen dependent)
  328. Tumor of infancy
    Hemangioma (usually regresses spontaneously in childhood)
  329. Tumor of the adrenal medulla (adults)
    Pheochromocytoma (usually benign)
  330. Tumor of the adrenal medulla (kids)
    Neuroblastoma (malignant)
  331. Type of Hodgkin's
    Nodular sclerosis (vs. mixed cellularity, lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion).
  332. Type of non-Hodgkin's
    Diffuse large cell
  333. UTI
    E. Coli, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (young women)
  334. Viral encephalitis affecting temporal lobe
    HSV
  335. Vitamin deficiency (U.S.)
    Folic acid (pregnant women are at high risk; body stores only 3-4 month supply; prevents neural tube defects)
  336. Sensitivity
    Sensitivity = TP/(TP+FN)
  337. Specificity
    Specificity = TN/(TN+FP)
  338. Positive predictive value
    PPV = TP/(TP + FP)
  339. Negative Predictive Value
    NPV = TN/(TN+FN)
  340. Relative Risk
    RR = [a/(a+b)] / [c/(c+d)]
  341. Attributable Risk
    AR = [a/(a+b)] - [c/(c+d)]
  342. Number needed to treat
    1/absolute risk reduction
  343. Number needed to harm
    1/attributable risk
  344. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
    p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1

    p + q = 1
  345. Henderson-Hasselblach equation
    pH = pka + log [HCO3-]/.03PCO2
  346. Volume of distribution
    Vd = amount of drug in the body/ plasma drug concentration
  347. Clearance
    CL = rate of elimination of drug/plasma drug concentration
  348. Half life
    t1/2 = 0.7 Vd / CL
  349. Loading dose
    LD = Cp X CL/F
  350. Maintenance Dose
    MD = Cp X CL/F
  351. Cardiac output
    CO = rate of 02 consumption/(arterial O2 content - venous O2 content)

    AND

    CO = stroke volume X heart rate
  352. Mean arterial pressure
    MAP = cardiac output X total peripheral resistance

    MAP = 1/3systolic + 2/3diastolic
  353. Stroke Volume
    SV = end diastolic volume - end systolic volume
  354. Ejection fraction
    EF = stroke volume/end diastolic volume X 100
  355. Resistance
    R = driving pressure/flow

    R = 8η(viscosity) x length/πr4
  356. Net filtration pressure
    Pnet = [(Pc-Pi) - (πci)]
  357. Glomerular filtration rate
    GFR = Uinulin x (V/Pinulin) = Cinulin


    AND

    GFR = Kf[(PGC-PBS) - (πGCBS)]
  358. Effective renal plasma flow
    ERPF = UPAH X (V/PPAH) = CPAH
  359. Renal blood flow
    RBF = RPF/(1-Hct)
  360. Filtration fraction
    FF = GRF/RPF
  361. Physiologic dead space
    VD = VT X [(PaCO2 - PeCO2)/PaCo2]
  362. telangiectasia, recurrent epistaxis, skin discolorations, AVMs
    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome)

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