POLI 102

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ryan666
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209547
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POLI 102
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2013-03-26 20:59:44
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POLI Class
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CHP 9,10,11
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  1. first power effect of congress.
    Has a localistic viewpoint
  2. Second power effect on congress.
    Is highly decentralized
  3. third power effect of congress
    Consists of individualists with highly partisan views.
  4. Fourth power effect of congress
    Does not often engage in careful deliberation.
  5. real business done buy congress is done in?
    committees and subcommittees.
  6. since congress is done by committees and subcommittees caused policy making?
    makes policy making highly decentralized.
  7. Veto
    It refers to the power of a president to disapprove a bill; it may be overridden by a two-thirds vote of each house of Congress
  8. Double tracking
    Setting aside a bill against which one or more senators are f libustering so that other legislation can be voted on.
  9. Voice vote
    A congressional voting procedure in which members shout “aye” in approval or “no” in disapproval; allows members to vote quickly or anonymously on bills.
  10. Division vote
    A congressional voting procedure in which members stand and are counted.
  11. Roll-call
    A congressional voting procedure that consists of members answering “yea” or “nay” to their names.
  12. Closed rule
    An order from the House Rules Committee in the House of Representatives that sets a time limit on debate and forbids a particular bill from being amended on the legislative f oor.
  13. Open rule
    An order from the House Rules Committee in the House of Representatives that permits a bill to be amended on the legislative floor
  14. Filibuster
    An attempt to defeat a bill in the Senate by talking indef nitely, thus preventing the Senate from taking action on it. From the Spanish f libustero, which means a “freebooter,” a military adventurer
  15. Riders
    Amendments on matters unrelated to a bill that are added to an important bill so that they will “ride” to passage through the Congress. When a bill has many riders, it is called a Christmas-tree bill.
  16. Cloture resolution
    A rule used by the Senate to end or limit debate. Designed to prevent “talking a bill to death” by flibuster. To pass in the Senate, three-fifths of the entire Senate membership (or sixty senators) must vote for it.
  17. Discharge petition
    A device by which any member of the House, after a committee has had a bill for thirty days, may petition to have it brought to the f oor. If a majority of the members agree, the bill is discharged from the committee. The discharge petition was designed to prevent a committee from killing a bill by holding it for too long.
  18. Restrictive rule
    An order from the House Rules Committee in the House of Representatives that permits certain kinds of amendments but not others to be made to a bill on the legislative f oor.
  19. House
    435 members serving two-year terms
  20. Senate
    100 members serving six-year terms
  21. Joint resolution
    A formal expression of congressional opinion that must be approved by both houses of Congress and by the president. Joint resolutions proposing a constitutional amendment need not be signed by the president.
  22. Simple resolution
    An expression of opinion either in the House of Representatives or the Senate to settle housekeeping or procedural matters in either body. Such expressions are not signed by the president and do not have the force of law.
  23. Concurrent resolution
    An expression of congressional opinion without the force of law that requires the approval of both the House and Senate but not of the president. Used to settle housekeeping and procedural matters that affect both houses.
  24. Major Committees
    Agriculture Armed, Services Education, and Labor Energy and Commerce Financial Services Foreign, Affairs Homeland, Security Judiciary,Transportation and Infrastructure
  25. Select Committee
    Energy Independence and Global Harming Intelligence
  26. Exclusive Committees
    Appropriations Rules Ways and Means
  27. Nonmajor Committees
    Budget Oversight and Government Reform, House Administration, Natural Resources Science and Technology Small Business, Standards of official Conduct, Veterans Affairs
  28. Select committees
    Congressional committees appointed for a limited time and purpose.
  29. Joint committees
    Committees on which both representatives and senators serve. An especially important kind of joint committee is the conference committee made up of representatives and senators appointed to resolve differences in the Senate and House versions of the same legislation before f nal passage.
  30. Conference committees
    made up of representatives and senators appointed to resolve differences in the Senate and House versions of a bill before final passage.
  31. Caucus (congressional)
    An association of members of Congress created to advocate a political ideology or a regional, ethnic, or economic interest.
  32. Standing committees
    Permanently established legislative committees that consider and are responsible for legislation within certain subject areas. Examples are the House Ways and Means Committee and the Senate Judiciary Committee.
  33. Party vote
    There are two measures of such voting. By the stricter measure, a party vote occurs when 90 percent or more of the Democrats in either house of Congress vote together against 90 percent or more of the Republicans. A looser measure counts as a party vote any case where at least 50 percent of the Democrats vote together against at least 50 percent of the Republicans.
  34. Speaker
    The presiding officer of the House of Representatives and the leader of his or her party in the House.
  35. Majority leader (floor leader)
    The legislative leader elected by party members holding the majority of seats in the House of Representatives or the Senate.
  36. Minority leader
    The legislative leader elected by party members holding a minority of seats in the House of Representatives or the Senate.
  37. Whip
    A senator or representative who helps the party leader stay informed about what party members are thinking, rounds up members when important votes are to be taken, and attempts to keep a nose count on how the voting on controversial issues is likely to go.
  38. Runoff primary
    A second primary election held in some states when no candidate receives a majority of the votes in the first primary; the runoff is between the two candidates with the most votes. Runoff primaries are common in the South.
  39. Bicameral legislature
    A lawmaking body made up of two chambers or parts. The U.S. Congress is a bicameral legislature composed of a Senate and a House of Representatives.
  40. Congress
    A national legislature composed of elected representatives who do not choose the chief executive (typically, a president).
  41. Parliament
    A national legislature composed of elected representatives who choose the chief executive (typically, the prime minister).
  42. James Madison insists that in any legislative body the number of legislators
    “ought at most to be kept within a certain limit, in order to avoid the con-fusion and intemperance of a multitude.”
  43. Circular structure
    method of organizing a president’s staff in which several presidential assistants report directly to the president.
  44. Pyramid structure
    A method of organizing a president’s staff in which most presidential assistants report through a hierarchy to the president’s chief of staff.
  45. Cluster structure
    A system for organizing the White House in which a group of subordinates and committees all report to the president directly.
  46. Cabinet
    By custom, the cabinet includes the heads of the fifteen major executive departments.
  47. Executive privilege
    A presidential claim that he may withhold certain information from Congress
  48. Veto message
    One of two ways for a president to disapprove a bill sent to him by Congress. The veto message must be sent to Congress within ten days after the president receives the bill.
  49. Pocket veto
    One of two ways for a president to disapprove a bill sent to him by Congress. If the president does not sign the bill within ten days of his receiving it and Congress has adjourned within that time, the bill does not become law.
  50. Line-item veto
    The power of an executive to veto some provisions in an appropriations bill while approving others. The president does not have the right to exercise a line-item veto and must approve or reject an entire appropriations bill.
  51. Legislative veto
    The rejection of a presidential or administrative-agency action by a vote of one or both houses of Congress without the consent of the president. In 1983, the Supreme Court declared the legislative veto to be unconstitutional.
  52. Signing Statements
    Written comments by the president about a bill he has just signed. Those that raise constitutional questions are controversial.
  53. Trial balloon
    Information provided to the media by an anonymous public off cial as a way of testing the public reaction to a possible policy or appointment.
  54. Budget resolution
    A proposal submitted by the House and Senate budget committees to their respective chambers recommending a total budget ceiling and a ceiling for each of several spending areas (such as health or defense) for the current f scal year. These budget resolutions are intended to guide the work of each legislative committee as it decides what to spend in its area.
  55. Continuing resolution
    A congressional enactment that provides funds to continue government operations in the absence of an agreed-upon budget.
  56. Budget deficit
    A situation in which the government spends more money than it takes in from taxes and fees.
  57. Budget surplus
    A situation in which the government takes in more money than it spends.
  58. Discretionary authority
    The extent to which appointed bureaucrats can choose courses of action and make policies that are not spelled out in advance by laws
  59. Competitive service
    The government off ces to which people are appointed on grounds of merit as ascertained by a written examination or by having met certain selection criteria (such as training, educational attainments, or prior experience).
  60. Excepted service
    Provision for appointing federal offices without going through the competitive service.
  61. Name-request job
    A job to be filled by a person whom a government agency has identified by name.
  62. Iron triangle
    A close relationship among an agency, a congressional committee, and an interest group that often becomes a mutually advantageous alliance.
  63. Issue network
    A loose collection of leaders, interest groups, bureaucratic agencies, and congressional committees interested in some public policy.
  64. Authorization legislation
    Legislative permission to begin or continue a government program or agency. An authorization bill may grant permission to spend a certain sum of money, but that money does not ordinarily become available unless it is also appropriated. Authorizations may be annual, multiyear, or permanent.
  65. Appropriation
    Legislative grant of money to finance a government program.
  66. Trust funds
    Funds for government programs that are collected and spent outside the regular government budget; the amounts are determined by preexisting law rather than by annual appropriations. The Social Security trust fund is the largest of these
  67. Committee clearance
    The ability of a congressional committee to review and approve certain agency decisions in advance and without passing a law. Such approval is not legally binding on the agency, but few agency heads will ignore the expressed wishes of committees.
  68. Red tape
    Complex bureaucratic rules and procedures that must be followed to get something done.
  69. The Framers chose to place legislative powers in the hands of a congress cause
    philosophical and practical reasons
  70. Despite the ups and downs of party leadership what has increased
    the power of party loyalty has grown in the House.
  71. The Congress of the United States consists of two chambers
    the House of  Representatives and the Senate.
  72. Because of population movements within the country, who has gained more seats and lost more seats.
    northeastern states have been losing seats in the House in recent decades while many of the states in the South and Southwest have been gaining seats
  73. In the nineteenth century, a majority of members often served only how many terms
    one term
  74. when did serving in congress become a career?
    by the 1950's
  75. what are the 3 factors of the change in congress?
    First, when congressional district lines were redrawn after the 1990 census, many incumbents found themselves running in new districts that they could not carry. Second, voter disgust at a variety of Washington political scandals made them receptive to appeals from candidates who could describe themselves as “outsiders.” Third, the Republican congressional victory in 1994—made possible in part by the conversion of the South from a Democratic bastion to a Republican stronghold—brought a lot of new faces to the Capitol.
  76. what happen in the 1980's with congress
    about 40 members of congress where charged with misconduct, having sex with minors and accepting illegal gifts.
  77. most races for house of senate involve how many candidates
    2
  78. opinion polls show that many Americans have a?
    low opinion of Congress but a high opinion of their own member of Congress.
  79. president pro tempore of the Senate is chosen how?
    the person with the greatest seniority.
  80. Each party also chooses a Policy Committee composed
    a dozen or so senators who help the party leader schedule Senate business, choosing what bills will be given major attention and in what order
  81. the ideological difference between the parties are so different that.
    the south democrat is more liberal than the northern republican.
  82. political parties are what when influenceing congress?
    less powerful in Congress than once was the case, ideology is more infuential.
  83. how many committees can a house Representative serve on?
    Each senator may serve on two major committees and one minor committee.   (but members of the Appropriations, Rules, or Ways and Means  committees are limited to one committee).
  84. The liberals succeeded in getting the House to adopt rules that weakened the chairmen and empowered individual members, changed
    elected by the majority party, voting by secret ballot,  The ability of committee chairmen to block legislation by refusing to refer it to a subcommittee for a hearing was banned.• All committees and subcommittees must hold public meetings unless the  committee voted to close them.• Subcommittee chairmen must be elected by committee members.• Subcommittee chairmen can hire their own staffs, independent of the commit-tee chairman.
  85. orientation of committee staff members differs how?
    Others see themselves as partisan advocates, interested in promoting Democratic or Republican causes,
  86. congress has become what, since increase in use of staff members?
    become more individualistic, less collegial.
  87. In the House all revenue and most other bills are discussed by
    the Committee of the Whole
  88. In recent years, members of Congress—especially of the House—have become
    more personal in their criticisms of one another, and human relationships have deteriorated
  89. what factors will lead a representative or senator to vote for or against a bill or amendment.
    representational, organizational, and attitudinal
  90. representational explanation
    explanation is based on the reasonable assumption that members want to get reelected, and therefore they vote to please their constituents.
  91. organizational explanation
    equally reason-able assumption that because most constituents do not know how their legislator has voted it is not essential to please them
  92. attitudinal explanation
    assumption that there are so many conflicting pressures on members of Congress that they cancel one another out, leaving them virtually free to vote on the basis of their own beliefs
  93. problem with the representational explanation
    is that public opinion is not strong and clear on most measures on which Congress must vote.
  94. Are the members of Congress representative of the American people?
    They tend to be older and are more likely to be white and male and to be more ideological than the average voter. Nevertheless, they pay a lot of attention to what the people back home want.
  95. Does Congress prefer strong leadership, or does it allow its members a lot of freedom?
    The Senate has always valued freedom over leadership.
  96. How important are political parties in Congress?
    Very important.  It reffects the belief of most Democratic members that they are liberals and the belief of most Republicans that they are conservatives.
  97. Why does it take so long for Congress to act?
    Congress is designed to make legislation proceed slowly. unless a national crisis happens then they act quickly.

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