APSYCH Unit 7B

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tiffanycedeno
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APSYCH Unit 7B
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2013-03-27 00:28:38
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  1. attribution theory
    • 1. tend to give a casual explanation for someone's behavior 
    • 2. how people assign responsibility to certain outcomes
  2. dispositional
    • 1. focused on people 
    • 2. behavior is a result of innate personality trait
  3. situational
    1. cause of the behavior is the result of the situation/environment they're in
  4. Harold Kelley
    • 1. consistency: how similarly individual acts in same situation overtime 
    • 2. distinctiveness: how similar this particular situation to others 
    • 3. consensus: how others have responded to same situation
  5. fundamental attribution error
    • 1. analyzing another's behavior tendency to underestimate the impact of the situation
    • 2. overestimate the impact of personal disposition
  6. self serving bias
    • 1. think of ourselves favorably 
    • 2. + blame disposition 
    • 3. - blame situational
  7. self fulfilling prophecy
    1. when expectations of a person influence their  behavior
  8. Rosenthal effect
    • 1. ripe for intellectual progress
    • 2. when children are expected to achieve, they do so
  9. attitudes
    • 1. belief and feeling that allows one to respond in a particular way to objects, people and events 
    • 2. have a strong impact when outside influence and what we do are minimal; attitude is specifically relevant to behavior; keenly aware of our attitudes
    • 3. combonation of affective and cognitive reactions to external stimuli
  10. La Piere
    • 1. relationships with attitudes is not perfect 
    • 2. 1934
  11. persuasion
    1. a process by which a person/group can influence attitude to others
  12. mere exposure effect
    1. repealed exposure to new stimulus enhances liking to experience
  13. other ways of persuasion
    • 1. fear, people who have position of authority 
    • 2. people who appear to be experts 
    • 3. good motive 
    • 4. person is interpersonal 
    • 5. attractiveness/likeable/trustworthy
  14. compliance
    1. agree to request of others even in the expense of own interests
  15. foot in the door phenomenon
    • 1. tendency for people who have agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request 
    • ex: salesmen
  16. door in the face
    1. tendency for a person after refusing large request, comply with smaller more reasonable request
  17. cognitive dissonance theory
    • 1. discomfort we feel when actions conflict with reduce experience/belief
    • 2. attitudes more in line with actions 
    • 3. problem with compliance
  18. conformity
    • 1. adjusting one's behavior to agree with a group standard 
    • 2. not sure about judgements, people adjust to group std.
  19. Solomon Asch
    • 1. under certain conditions will conform to certain situations 
    • 2. lines
  20. normative social influence
    • 1. conformity 
    • 2. gain approval/avoid approval
  21. informational social influence
    1. willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
  22. other factors of conformity
    • 1. group size - 3 or more 
    • 2. make people conform 
    • 3. cohesiveness
  23. Stanley Milgrim
    • 1. obedience study: doing the thing of an authority figure, whether you like it or not 
    • 2. demonstrates social influence can be strong enough to falsehoods of capitulate to cruelty 
    • 3. 2/3 got to 450 volt mark
  24. group dynamics
    1. when people interact with each other
  25. social facilitation
    • 1. idea that in presence of observers, increase of performance or task when performed in front of others 
    • ex: dancing
  26. social inhibition
    • 1. in presence of others, you do worse 
    • ex: not good in public speaking
  27. social loafing
    1. people in a group to exert less effort toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
  28. deindividuation
    • 1. loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations 
    • 2. when the group experience arouses people and make them feel anonymous
  29. group polarization
    enhancement of a group's prevailing attitude through discussion within the group
  30. groupthink
    1. tendency for some groups to make bad decisions
  31. mind guard
    1. people criticize members who don't agree with group and eventually convinces that way
  32. ***resolutions of conflict
  33. antisocial behavior
    1. behavior that is harmful to society and others
  34. prejudice
    1. neg. attitude toward a group and its members without evident backing
  35. stereotype
    • 1. generalized belief about a group of people 
    • 2. lead to prejudice
  36. ingroup vs. outgroup
    • 1. "us" - accepted
    • 2. "them" - outside of group
  37. scapegoat theory
    • 1. prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame 
    • 2. despised outgroups boost ingroup esteem
  38. illusory correlation
    • 1. seeing a relationship between there's two theories that isn't there 
    • 2. makes people blind to good things 
    • ex: ethnic groups commit crimes
  39. working together vs. contact hypothesis
    • 1. w- set goal 
    • 2. c- expose groups with stereotypes to each other
  40. just-world phenomenon
    • 1. tendency to believe the world is just 
    • 2. that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get 
    • "how they see the world"
  41. aggression
    • 1. any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy 
    • 2. behavior directed towards another with intention of harm
  42. hostile aggression
    • 1. emotional and impulsive
    • 2. induced by stress and pain 
    • 3. no point
  43. instrumental aggression
    1. aggression committed to gain something of value
  44. biological reasons for aggression
    • 1. genetic evidence
    • 2. biochemically certain areas of brain 
    • 3. hormones 
    • 4. physical pain 
    • 5. personal insults 
    • 6. competition
  45. frustration-aggression principle
    • 1. block of attempt to achieve some goal - creates anger 
    • 2. role models acting aggressively/diff. cultures
  46. violent videos, pornography, and aggression
    • 1. one's own partner less attractive 
    • 2. women's friendliness more sexual
  47. dehumanization
    1. viewing victims of violence as less human
  48. Philip Zimbardo (Stanford prison experiment)
    • 1. when we find ourselves in new situations and uncertain how to act, rely on certain scripts provided by culture 
    • 2. society influence
  49. social traps
    • 1. situation in which the conflicting parties 
    • 2. caught in mutually destructive behavior as they pursue their own ends
  50. attraction influences (4)
    • 1. proximity (factor influences liking for another) 
    • 2. physical attractive 
    • 3. similarity of attitudes and interests 
    • 4. reciprocal liking
  51. passionate love
    1. intense positive absorption in another
  52. companionate love (equity)
    1. deep affectionate we feel
  53. equity
    1. condition in which people receive in proportion to what they give to it
  54. self-disclosure
    1. revealing intimate aspects of one-self to other
  55. altruism
    1. unselfish regard for welfare of others
  56. bystander effect
    • 1. emergency for any given bystander to less likely give aid within other bystanders/extreme social loafing
    • - presence of others inhibits one's noticing the event 
    • - interpreting emergency 
    • - assuming responsibility for helping
  57. diffusion of responsibility
    1. larger number of people who witness emergency situation, less likely anyone is to interfere or help
  58. pluralistic ignorance
    • 1. appropriate behavior  on how to act in an emergency is looked to others
    • 2. if no one is worried, no action taken
  59. Kitty Genovese murder
    1. in the 60's, woman murdered in front of 38 peope
  60. social exchange theory
    1. underlying behavior including helping is the desire to max. benefits and min. our costs

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