Components of body
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What are the to components of cytoplasm?
The cytosol and the organelles.
What is the function of ribosomes?
The ribosomes take strands mRNA and synthesis protein. tRNA molecules, carrying amino acids are drawn into the ribosome machine where they are matched to the appropriate sequences on the mRNA.
What is the endoplasmic reticulum?
The membrane of sacs forming a layer on the outside of the nucleus. There are two types of endoplasmic reticulum; smooth and rough.
Explain rough endoplasmic reticulum and its function?
A network of membranes extending from the nucleus for which there is a great surface area available for chemical reactions to take place. It is studded with ribosomes.
Explain smooth endoplasmic reticulum and its function?
It extends from the rough endoplasmic reticulum and provides a large surface area for chemical reactions. It does not contain ribosomes.
What is the structure and function of the golgi complex?
It modifies, sorts, packages and transports proteins throughout the cells, especially those for secretion. It creates vesicles.
What is the structure and function of lysosomes?
Lysosomes are vesicles containing particular enzymes; thus they are a lipid membrane containing cytoplasm and proteins. The enzymes contained will breakdown certain molecules, making lysosomes moving trash clean up agents.
What is the structure and function of mitochondria?
Mitochondria contain a network of membranes contained in a larger, enveloping membrane. They are studded with ribosomes and provide a large surface area for chemical reactions, manufacturing most of the cell's ATP and taking a role in signalling, cell differentiation and the cell life cycle.
What is the structure of the nucleus?
A spherical double membrane called the nuclear envelope, containing the nucleolis. The nucleolis itself contains the genetic material; long strands of DNA wrapped around chromotids, forming chromosomes. It also regulates protein production within the cell.
How is genetic material arranged within the nucleus?
Long strands of DNA are wrapped around histones forming chromatins. Millions of these chromatins are bundled to form cross shaped structures called chromosomes.
What is a chromosome?
A chromosome is a unit storage for genetic material. It consists of long strands of DNA wrapped around histones. Chromosomes are cross shaped, with four appendages called chromatids arranged around a centromere.
What is a chromatid?
Chromatids are the four appendage structures branching from the centromere of a chromosome.
What are the two main processes involved in the conversion of a gene into a protein? Briefly explain how these processes occur.
Transcription: Involves the use of RNA polymerase to unzip the DNA and create a tRNA molecule. The mRNA exits into ER for translation.
Translation: The mRNA molecule enters the ER where it meets with a ribosome. The ribosome meets the mRNA molecules with tRNA molecules, carrying amino acids on their opposite ends. As each tRNA molecule meets with the mRNA, a chain of amino acids forms on the opposite end.
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