Card Set Information
Animal Diseases Four
What are the three layers of the skin?
What are the functions of the skin?
motion and shape
adnexa (hair, nails, hooves)
vitamin D production
What are the different types of skin diseases?
What are pyodermas?
Bacterial infection of the skin
Are pyodermas primary or secondary conditions?
Can be either
Are pyodermas superficial or deep infections?
Can be either
What do superficial pyodermas involve?
Only superficial epidermis and hair follicles
For superficial pyodermas, healing occurs without ______.
Does superficial pyoderma usually last a long time?
No, short duration
What are the different types of superficial pyodermas?
Acute moist dermatitis
skin fold pyoderma
What are the clinical signs of superficial pyodermas?
often staphylococcus spp.
What is epidermal collarette?
A circular lesion with a circular rim of scale and/or a peeling edge
What is the treatment for superficial pyodermas?
identify and treat underlying disease if present
What do deep pyodermas tend to become?
Do deep pyodermas resist treatments?
What are deep pyodermas usually associated with?
What are deep pyodermas sometimes secondary to?
How does staphylococcus intermedius cause deep pyodermas?
Releases enzymes and toxins that produce severe tissue damage
What are the clinical signs of deep pyodermas?
Same as for superficial
Dogs often febrile
may produce draining tracts
: juvenile cellulitis, interdigital pyoderma, generalized pyoderma
How do we treat deep pyodermas?
Do culture and sensitivity
prolonged antibiotics therapy as long as three months
staphylococcal bacterin - bacterial vaccine
How do we educate our clients on deep pyodermas?
There may be drug resistance
expensive for large breed dogs
need to investigate underlying cause
some animals may never be cured
What is another term for acute moist dermatitis?
What are hot spots usually secondary to? How does trauma usually happen?
Secondary to trauma
trauma usually self inflicted
What do hot spots usually look like?
Red, moist, hot, painful
How do we treat hot spots?
Clip hair from regions, exposing the edge of the lesion
cleanse with a medicated shampoo
topical medication - gentocin spray
treat underlying condition (fleas, atopy)
may need to sedate because lesions can be painful
How do we educate clients about hot spots?
Gentle cleansing daily will help speed recovery
ecollar as needed
owner should wash hands after treatment
Where do we usually see skin fold pyoderma?
where the skin is plentiful - lips, facial folds, vulvar folds, tail folds
How do dogs get skin fold pyoderma?
trap moisture and heat
constant rubbing and trauma
What are the clinical signs of a skin fold pyoderma?
red, moist, ulcerated
Are skin fold pyodermas a chronic problem?
yes, require long term treatment
How do we treat skin fold pyoderma?
clip and cleanse areas
dry the lesions - cornstartch
surgical removal of excess skin
How do we educate clients about skin fold pyoderma?
long term and maintenance medical treatment
keep hair away from the eyes
monitor cornea for damage
What is another term for impetigo?
What age does impetigo usually occur?
under 1 years old
What is impetigo?
What are the clinical signs of impetigo?
occurs on sparsely haired areas - abdomen, axillae
What is the bacteria that usually causes impetigo?
What is the treatment for impetigo?
many resolve spontaneously
many resolve once neutered
What is feline acne?
Can feline acne be chronic?
At what age does feline acne occur?
can occur at any age
What are the clinical signs of feline acne?
black grandular debris on chin hair
What is the treatment for feline acne?
clip hair on chin and cleanse
extract large comedones - may require sedation
cleanse daily with benzoyl peroxide - human acne pads
topical, systemic antibiotics
How do we educate clients on feline acne?
may be a chronic problem
maintenance treatment is needed
may be helpful to change from plastic or ceramic food and water dishes to glass of stainless steal
wash dishes weekly
What are other names for juvenile cellulitis?
What is juvenile cellulitis?
skin lesions progressing to systemic disease - fever, anorexia, enlarged and abscessing lymph nodes
What are the clinical signs of juvenile cellulitis?
: 3 - 16 weeks
acute swelling of face
eyelids, lups, muzzle
papules, pustules, fistulas
painful, febrile, joint pain
What is the treatment for juvenile cellulitis?
aggressive therapy with corticosteroids
relapse is uncommon
use aggressive therapy to prevent scarring
What is Malassezia dermatitis?
Where do we normally find malassezia?
normal flora of ear canal, skin, and mucosal surfaces
What does Malassezia have a symbiotic relationship with?
What factors enhance the growth of malassezia dermatitis?
yeast is a secondary invader to primary skin disease
allergies, skin folds
immune suppression - disease or iatrogenic
What are the clinical signs of malassezia dermatitis?
malodorous - can smell from the next room if severe
erythema, scales, pyoderma
possible hyperpigmentation and lichenification
How do we diagnose malassezia?
cytology - impression smear, ear swab
round to oval budding yeast - peanut, shoe print, snowman
How do we treat malassezia?
local - topical antifungals
generalized - topical antifungal shampoos, systemic antifungals if needed, antibiotics
What are some examples of antifungal shampoos?
Where are the anal glands located?
located between muscle layers of the anus, at 4 and 8 o'clock
What kind of fluid do anal sacs produce?
oily, brown fluid
How are anal glands naturally expressed?
defectaion compresses sacs, expelling fluid onto surface of feces
What can anal sacs result in?
may abcess and rupture
What are the clinical signs of something being wrong with the anal sacs?
scooting on rear end, "sit and spin", reluctance to sit
tenesmus/pain on defecation
redness or abscess in anal area
stares at rear end
What is the treatment for anal sacs?
drain sacs by internal compression
if secretions dry, may need to add saline or mineral oil to soften
flush sacs with antiseptic or antibiotic solution
What is the treatment for an abscessed anal gland?
warm compresses or hydrotherapy
may need to sedate or anesthetize for initial treatment
What is another term for a lick granuloma?
canine acral lick granuloma
What does acral mean?
of or affecting a peripheral part, such as limbs or ears
What are the clinical signs of a lick granuloma?
thickened plaque on distal extremity
perpetuated by self trauma
What are the causes of a lick granuloma?
boredom, anxiety, frustration
allergy, skin disease - bacterial, fungal
hypothyroidism, neoplasia, foreign body, neuropathy
OCD - obsessive compulsive disorder
What is the treatment for a lick granuloma?
treat underlying cause
antibiotics - 8+ weeks
topical antibiotic +/- antiinflammatory
topical spray with analgesic
laser, cryosurgery, radiation
intralesional steroid injections
medications - antidepressants, anti-anxiety, behavior modification
How do we educate clients on lick granulomas?
long term therapy required
recurrence are common
lesion is often refractory to treat
When do injection reactions occur?
can occur 2 - 4 months after injection
Is treatment usually required for injection reactions?
What can injection reactions do to the hair of the animal?
hair regrowth may take months to years
color change to hair
alopecia could be permanent
What are some benign skin tumors?
What kind of dogs usually get histiocytomas?
What do histiocytomas look like?
small button-like nodule
may be ulcerated
face, legs, lips, abdomen
hair grows rapidly
What is the treatment for a histiocytoma?
usually regresses spontaneously
How do we educated clients about histiocytomas?
not malignant, no metastasis
not seen in cats
What are lipomas?
neoplasia of liopcytes - adipose cells
Are lipomas common in cats?
What are some common locations for lipomas?
What causes lipomas?
What are the clinical signs of a lipoma?
round or oval subcutaneous masses
encapsulated, slow growing
lesions are soft to firm
many are freely movable
How do we diagnose a lipoma?
fine needle aspirate
surgical excision and biopsy
What is the treatment for a lipoma?
remove rapidly growing tumors
remove if causing locomotion problems
How do we educate clients of lipomas?
benign tumors even though they may grow large
may recur after removal
change in diet will usually not affect existing lipomas
What are the clinical signs of sebaceous cysts?
dogs of any age or sex
encapsulated, round, fluctuant
contain gray, cheesy material
may spontaneously rupture
usually on back, legs, chest, and neck
How do we treat sebaceous cysts?
may never need treatment
How do we educate clients on sebaceous cysts?
formed by changes in the sebaceous gland surrounding the hair follicle
benign, slow growing
cure - surgical removal
What are some malignant skin tumors?
basal cell carcinoma
fibrosarcoma (not vaccine induced, vaccine induced)
mast cell tumor
melanoma - benign or malignant
squamous cell carcinoma
What are the clinical signs of basal cell carcinomas?
common tumor of adult animals
single, discrete lesion
round, firm, ulcerated
commonly found on the head
What is the treatment for basal cell carcinoma?
wide surgical excision
How do we educate clients on basal cell carcinoma?
recurrence possible at surgical site
Where do we typically find fibrosarcomas in older dogs that is not vaccine induced?
What are the clinical signs of a fibrosarcoma that is not vaccine induced?
firm, rubbery texture
adheres to underlying tissue
very invasive, readily metastasize
How do we treat fibrosarcomas that are not vaccine induced?
wide surgical excision
recurrence is common
prognosis is poor
may require amputation of a limb to get a wide surgical margin
Describe a fibrosarcoma that is vaccine induced.
tumor of fibroblasts
occur at vaccine site within 4 - 6 weeks post vaccination
What are the clinical signs of a fibrosarcoma that is vaccine induced?
nodular to irregular
How do we diagnose a fibrosarcoma that is vaccine induced?
fine needle aspiration
How do we treat a fibrosarcoma that is vaccine induced?
wide surgical excision
amputation of affected limb
radiation pre or post-op
How do we educated clients on fibrosarcomas that are vaccine induced?
if inflammatory lump from vaccination does not resolve in 1 - 2 weeks then recheck
variable to poor prognosis - especially if not detected and treated early and aggressively
What are the vaccine associated sarcoma task force guidelines?
use single dose vaccine
use intranasal vaccine if available
do not vaccinate between shoulder blades
any swelling not resolved by 6 weeks should be excised by radical excision
use vaccine without adjuvants
Where should we give the rabies vaccine?
low on right rear leg
Where should we give the FeLV vaccine?
low on left rear leg
Where should we give the FVR-CP vaccine?
What do mast cell tumors arise from?
What are the clinical signs of a mast cell tumor?
isolated, firm nodules in skin
50% on rear legs, perineum, or external genitalia
may be ulcerated
cats may have crusts over ulcerated tumor surfaces
How do we diagnose mast cell tumors?
How do we treat mast cell tumors?
wide surgical excision
How do we educated clients on mast cell tumors?
30% of cases metastasize
recurrence is possible
cats - lesions usually benign
What do benign melanomas look like?
small, slow growing, hairless, have dark pigmentation
What do malignant melanomas look like?
large, dome-shaped, attached, varying pigment
Where are melanomas common?
How do we diagnose a melanoma?
How do we treat melanoma?
radical surgical excision
How do we educated clients on melanomas?
prognosis usually poor
life span small lesions - 12 months
life span large lesions - 4 months
Where do squamous cell carcinomas occur?
in thinly haired, non-pigmented, sun-damaged skin
Where on cats do we usually see squamous cell carcinomas?
pinnae, eyelids, nose
Where on dogs do we usually see squamous cell carcinomas?
What do squamous cell carcinomas look like?
lesions raised, ulcerated, cauliflower - like, necrotic odor
How do we diagnose squamous cell carcinomas?
How do we treat squamous cell carcinomas?
complete surgical excision
How do we educated clients on squamous cell carcinomas?
tumors most common in sun-damaged skin
recurrence is common
prevent chronic exposure to the sun