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How do hormones effect tissues distal to their secretion?
secreted into the bloodstream and will diffuse from the blood to bind receptors on the target tissue
What is the paracrine mechanism?
cells secrete hormones that will influence tissue that is surrounding them
what is autocrine?
cell secretes hormones that will bind to its own receptors and cause change
What are the two methods by which hormones will be transported in the blood?
unbound, or attached to transport molecules
What are some types of hormones that are carried with transport molecules?
Steroid hormones and thyroid hormones are carried by specific carrier proteins synthesized in the liver
Do unbound hormones usually have a long half life and what is an example?
usually short, insulin
In what fashion do unbound (water soluble) hormones typically bring about their effects on the target cell?
bind to a receptor and exert their effects through secondary cell messengers
In what fashion do bound (lipid soluble) hormones typically bring about their effects on the target cell?
they are able to pass freely through the cell membrane and bind receptors in the nucleus or the cytoplasm
What is receptor modulation?
the body regulating the sensitivity of cell to certain substances
what are the two types of cell regulation?
- up-regulation: when low concentrations of a hormone increase the number of receptors per cell
- down-regulation: when high concentrations of a hormone decrease the number of receptors per cell.
Explain the phenomenon of negative feedback.
Endocrine tissue secretes hormone then goes to target tissue. Target tissue secrete hormone that circulates back to endocrine tissue to inhibit the secretion original messenger.
Where are the neurotransmitters ADH and oxytocin released from?
post pituitary gland
What are some examples of endocrine hypofunction?
What causes endocrine hypofunction?
What are some causes of endocrine hyperfunction?
- hormone-secreting tumors
- hyperplasia of the gland
- autoimmune processes that stimulate rather than inhibit secretion
- exogenous hormone administration
- alteration in target tissue responsiveness/ receptor sensitivity
Name two diseases in which involve the alteration of ADH?
Too much ADH secreted from the post-pit leading to decrease in Na+ and water reabsorbtion from the kidneys.
What can cause SIADH?
- Ectopic secretion (a paraneoplastic syndrome) in several carcinomas (lung, GI tract, leukemia, et al.)
- Post-op crani/pituitary surgery
- meds antidepressants, anesthetics, barbiturates, morphine, vincristine, et al
What is the treatment for SIADH?
treat underlying cause, fluid restriction, correct hyponatremia.
What is Diabeted Insipidus and what are the two classifications of it?
- Decreased synthesis of ADH (neurogenic DI)
- Failure of nephron to respond to ADH (nephrogenic DI)
What What is the treatment for Diabetes inspipidus?
Would the specific gravity of urine be high or low in DI? and SIADH?
- DI:low 1.001-1.005 (highly dilute urine)
- SIADH: >1.025
What is normal specific gravity?
1.010 to 1.025
Where is GH released from?
What does an increased GH cause?
- - In adults will cause enlarged features but not overall frame
- - In children is more proportional i.e. will look normal but bigger
What is the purpose of prolactin?
promotes breast development & lactation in women; role in fertility and testosterone production in men.
What is the most common anterior pit hormone disorder?