Ch 14 PPT. 1

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Ch 14 PPT. 1
2013-04-22 15:29:53
CHM 112

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  1. Arrhenius acid
    • substance that dissociates in water to produce hydrogen ions, H+
    • HA<--> H+ + A-
  2. Arrhenius Base
    • a substance that dissociates in water to produce hydroxide ions, OH-
    • MOH<--> M+ + OH-
  3. Bronsted-Lowry Acid
    sustance that can transfer H+; proton donor
  4. Bronsted-Lowry Base
    sustance that can accept H+; proton acceptor
  5. Conjugate acid-base pairs
    chemical species whose formulas differ only by one hydrogen ion, H+
  6. Due to __ of the H ion, it is actually __ by one or more __.
    For our purpose, H+ is equivalent to __.
    • high reactivity
    • hydrated
    • water molecules
    • H30+
  7. True or False: H+ does not exist alone as H+
    true: as H30+
  8. What is Bronsted Lowry Theory Acid reaction with water?
    HA+H2O <--> H3O+ + A-
  9. What is Bronsted Lowry Theory Base reaction with water?
    NH3 + H2O  <--> OH- + NH4+
  10. Water is what?
    aphoteric (amphoprotic): it can act as an acid or as a base and thus can react with itself
  11. How does water react with itself.
    This is called the __ of water.
    • 2 H2O <--> H3O+ + OH-
    • autoionization
  12. How many water molecules dissociate when reaction with itself?
    1 in 10 milllion
  13. With equal concentrations of reactants and products, what will be the direction of reaction?
    from stronger to weaker, whether base or acid
  14. Weak acid
    an acid that is only partially dissociated in water and is thus a weak electrolyte
  15. Lewis Acid
    electron-pair acceptor; these are generally cations and neutral molecuels with vacant valence orbitals, such as Al3+, Cu2+, H+. BF3
  16. Lewis Base
    electron-pair donor; these are generally anions and nuetral molecules with available pairs of electrons, such as H2O NH3, O2-
  17. The bond formed between a lewis acid and a lewis base is called a __.
    coordinate bond
  18. Explain in depth the coordinate bond
    when the bond is formed between one species that donates both pairs of electrons and the other donates none
  19. What is the ion-product constant for water
    Kw= [H+][OH-]= 1.0 x 10^-14
  20. What is the relation between H+ and OH- in the constant for water
    [H3O+]= [OH-]=1.0 x 10-7
  21. What happens if hte concentration of H3O+ goes up or OH- goes up?
    the other one will go down to maintain equilibrium
  22. Acidic would be ?
    H3O+ >  OH-
  23. Neutral would be
    H3O+ =  OH-
  24. Basic would be
    H3O+ <  OH-
  25. What is the scale of pH?
  26. What happens when a solution gets more acidic?
    pH gets smaller, while the concentration gets bigger
  27. pH values
    • Basic >7
    • Neutral =7
    • Acidic < 7
  28. The pH of a solution is the __ of hte __.
    • negative logarithm
    • hydrogen ion concentration
  29. acid base indicator
    a substance that changes color in a specifc pH range
  30. What do indicators exhibit?
    pH dependent color changes because they are weak acids ahd have different colors in their acid and conjugate base forms
  31. Strong acids and bases
    strong electrolytes that are assumed to ionize completely in water
  32. weak acids and bases
    are weak electrolytes that ionize only to a limited extent in water
  33. Solutions of weak acids and bases contain __ and __.
    • ionized
    • nonionized species
  34. If an acid is strong, what
    its conjugate base has no measurable strength
  35. __ is the strongest acid that can exist in aqueous solution
  36. __ is the strongest base that can exist in aqueous solution
  37. Acid ionization constant
    the equilibrium onstant for the ionization of an acid
  38. percent dissociation
    • a measur eof the strength of an acid
    • % dissociation= [H+]/[HA0] x 100
  39. Strong acids have __
    Percent dissociation of a weak acid does what as it conncentration increases?
    • higher percent dissociation
    • decreases as its concentration increases
  40. base ionization constant
    the equilibrium constant for the ionization of a base
  41. the ionization of weak bases is treated how?
    the same way as the ionization of weak acids
  42. Base dissociation constant
    kb= [BH+][OH-]/ [B]
  43. product of Ka and Kb
    multiplying out the expressions for Ka and Kb equals Kw
  44. pKa+pKb=
  45. Salts that produce neutral solutions are
    those formed from strong acids and strong bases
  46. salts that produce basic solutiosn are those formed from
    weak acids and strong bases
  47. salts that produce acidic solutions are those formed from
    strong acids and weak bases
  48. Ka > kb
    the solution will contain more H30+ ions
  49. Ka < kb
    the solution will contain an exces of OH- ions
  50. Ka = Kb
    the solution will contain approx. equal concentrations
  51. What is the trend for acid strenghth for HnX?
    increases with increasing polarity of HX bond and increasing size of X
  52. Explain the trend of acid strength for HnYO3.
    it increases with incrasing electronegativity