24. 3.1

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24. 3.1
2013-03-26 14:51:06
HON 122

HON 122
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  1. European steates embarked on an intense scrambe for overseas territory: new __--> Asia and Africa
  2. Causes of the New Imperialism
    • a.      Existence of competitive nation-steates and growing nationalism after 1870
    • b.      Colonies good for international prestige
    • c.       Closely tied to nationalism
    • d.      Patriotic fervor
    • e.       Social Darwinism and Racism
    • Religion
    • Economy
  3. causes: 

    a.      Existence of competitive nation-steates and growing nationalism after 1870
    •                                                               i.      European affairs grew tense, increased competition spurred European states to acquire colonies abroad that provided ports and coaling stations for navies
    • Britain wanted to keep French, Germans, and Russians from setting up bases that could harm British interests
  4. Colonies and Patriotic Cervor
    • a.      Colonies good for international prestige
    •                                                               i.      Failure to enter race was weakness, unacceptable to great powers
    • b.      Patriotic fervor
    •                                                               i.      Schools used maps of colonial territories to teach geography
    •                                                             ii.      Newspapers/ magazines had soldier’s letters that made imperialism seem heroic
    •                                                           iii.      Volunteer groups fostered enthusiasm
    •                                                           iv.      Plays written to excite people about expansion abroad
  5. Social Darwininsm and Racism
    •                                                               i.      Fit are victorious and surviveà superior races must dominate inferior races by force
    • 1.      Karl Pearson: path of progress is traced in slaughtered remains of inferior forces, enabling man to become more intellectual
    • One Englishman: development of white, Black, and Yellow wil ever remain inferior; as white raised higher, the latters shrunk
  6. Religion
    •                                                               i.      Europenas had a moral responsibility to civilize ignorant peoples
    • 1.      :white man’s burden” helped individuals rationalize imperialism in their own minds
    •                                                             ii.      Thousands of Catholic and Protestant missionaries went abroad to seek converts to their faith
    • 1.      Belief that the superiorry of their civilization obligated them to impose modern industries and new medicines on primitive nonwhites was racist
  7. Economy
    •                                                               i.      Great demand foor natural resources and products not found in West, like oil
    • 1.      Didn’t want to trade, but direct control of areas
    •                                                             ii.      Large surpluses of capital that bankers and industrialists accumulated encouraged them to seek higher rates of profit in underdeveloped areas
  8. economic imperialism
    •                                                               i.      of these combined to equal economic imperialism: European finance dominated the economic activity of a large part of the world
    • 1.      Not same as colonial; Businesses invested where most profitable, not where their countries had colonies
    • a.      Less than 10% of French foreign investments wetn to French colonies; most ofrest to Latin or Euroepan countries
    • b.      Brits had more trade with Belgium than Africa
  9. Much of colonial territory
    •                                                               i.      Much of colonial territory that was acquired was mere wasteland from the perspective of industrialized Europe and cost more to administer than it produced economically
    • Only the serach for national prestige could justify such losses
  10. Followers of Marx
    •                                                               i.      Followers of Marx argued that imperialism was economical because the imperialisim connected to demise of capitalist system
    • 1.      Marx hinted at this, but his follower, Russian VI Lenin, who in Imperialism, the Highest Stage of World Capitalism, developed the idea that capitalismà imperialism 
  11. Capitalist system
    • a.      Capitalist system concentrates more wealth in ever-fewer hands, the possibility for investment at home is exhausted, and capitalist forced to invest abroad, establish colonies, and explot small, weak nations
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Only cure for imperialism was destruction of capitalism