Patho Final Review

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elamas77
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20966
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Patho Final Review
Updated:
2010-05-28 00:08:58
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Final review
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study outline
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  1. pelvic inflammitory disease (PID)
    • infection of the reproductive tract, particularly the fallopian tubes and ovaries
    • sings/symptoms
    • lower abd. pain, increases by walking,
    • treatment
    • aggresive treat with approprate antimicrobials (cefoxitin/doxycycline)
  2. intrauterine device (IUD)
    a contraceptive device, can cause PID
  3. leiomyoma (fibroids)
    • bening tumor of the myometruim, cause is unkown
    • symptoms
    • heavy menstral flow, bleed btwn periods, pain, infertility
  4. ovarian cysts
    small fluid filled sacs that develop in ovaries casues pain if it bleeds or breaks
  5. polycystic ovarian syndrome (Stein-Leventhal syndrome)
    large ovaries covered with cyts, hormonal abnormalities include: elevated androgen, estrogen, LH and decreased FSH levels, dysfunction in the hypothalmic-pituitary control system
  6. hirsutism
    excessive hairiness manifests in young women
  7. fibrocystic breast disease (b9 breast disease/physiologic nodularity)
    broad range of breast lesions, presence of nodules/masses in the breast tissue that change during the menstrual cycle
  8. ovarian cancer
    • only 25% is diagnost in early stages, poor prognosis "silent killer"
    • early indications are feeling bloating, fullness, indigestion, frequent urination, backache, pain with intercourse
  9. sexually transmitted diseases
    • recurrent infections are common
    • careful testing/diag. to uncover 2nd infections are necessary
    • are asymptomatic, particularly in women
    • no cure in viral STD's
    • more drug-resistant microorganisms increasing risks assosciated w/STD
    • infection may be transmitted from mother to fetus
    • partners of infected are difficult to notify/treat
    • condoms not used correctly/edu progams not effective
  10. prognosis
    probability for recovery
  11. signs
    • objective indicators of disease that are obvious
    • ex. fever, skin rash
  12. symptoms
    • subjective feelings
    • ex. pain, nausea
  13. dysplasia
    • abnormality of development
    • tissue inwhich the cells vary in size/shape, large nuclei freq present
  14. metaplasia
    1 mature cell type is replaced by a different mature cell type
  15. necrosis
    when a group of cells die
  16. metastatic neoplasm
    malignant tumor
  17. etiology
    causative factor in a particular disease
  18. prevention
    ex. vaccinations, dietary, lifestyle modifications
  19. percipitationg factors
    cond. that triggers an acute episode
  20. exacerbation
    • acute episode of cronic disease
    • increase of severity of disease
  21. local signs
    • swelling
    • erythema(redness)
    • pain/tenderness
  22. systemic signs
    • fever
    • leukocytosis
    • elevated ESR
    • fatigue
  23. leukopenia
    • decrease of WBC
    • indicator of viral infection
  24. neutrophils
    phagocystic cells
  25. macrophages
    cells that process and present antigents
  26. humoral immunity
    B lymphocytes / B cells are responsible through production of antibodies and immunoglobulins
  27. natrual active
    pathogens enter body and cause illness, antibodies form in host
  28. artificial active
    vaccine injected into person
  29. natural passive
    antibodies passed from mother to fetus
  30. artificial passive
    antibodies injected into person
  31. hypersentivities type 1
    • hay fever
    • anaphylaxis
  32. hypersensitivities type 2
    ABO blood incompatibility
  33. hypersentivities type 3
    • autoimmune disorders
    • SLE
    • glomerulonephritis
    • RH
  34. hypersensitivities type 4
    • contact dermatitis
    • transplant rejection
  35. anaphalaxis
    • sever systemic allergic reaction
    • critical situation because of systemic vasodialation
    • develops rapitly and bronchio constriction
  36. hemolysis
    breaking down of blood cells if incorrect blood tranfussion occur
  37. autoimmune disease
    • individuals develops antibodies to their own cells or celllular material
    • body attacks its self
  38. HIV attacks what?
    T helper cells
  39. anarobic
    without oxygen
  40. aerobic
    with oxygen
  41. non socomal
    hospital acuirred disease
  42. incubation period
    time btwn entry of organism into body and appearance of clinical signs of diease
  43. prodromal period
    • icky feeling
    • more evident in some infection than others
  44. acute period
    infection disease develops fully
  45. AIDS vs HIV
    HIV- virus only bodily fluids transfer
  46. attinuated
    when bacteria has been weakened
  47. universal precautions
    basic guidelines by which all blood, body fluids and wastes are considered infected
  48. 3 signs of local inflammation
    • swelling
    • warmth
    • redness
  49. 3 signs of infection
    • pain
    • swelling
  50. broad spectrum antibiotics
    it acts against both gram+ and gram- bacteria
  51. autoclaving
    technique that will kill most everything
  52. leukocytosis
    • increase WBC
    • bacterial disease
  53. bening neoplasm
    lipoma
  54. malignant neoplasm
    sarcoma
  55. difference of bening and malignant neoplasm
    bening has relatively normal cells
  56. grading new malignant tumor
    based on differentiation of cells
  57. metastasis
    malignant cells spreads
  58. gestation period
    time btwn 1st day of last menstration cycle to birth
  59. effects during pregnancy
    • vericose veins
    • decrease resp
    • increase urination freq
  60. placenta previa
    painless, vaginal bright red blood
  61. cardiac arrest
    sesation of all cardiac function
  62. classic maifesation of left congested heart failure
    • sob
    • swelling of ankle
  63. tachicardia
    elevated heart rate
  64. bradicardia
    decrease heart rate
  65. d-fib
    most dangerous
  66. most common predispoding factor for vericose veins
    increase vericose pressure
  67. small intestine (ileum)
    absorbs most nutritions
  68. tripsone
    pancreatic fluid break down protien
  69. vascular structure for liver
    • 70% oxygenated blood from portal vein
    • only one to use oxy & unoxy to support function
  70. vagus
    increase notify and secreasons
  71. cleft palate
    failure for soft and hard palate to fuse
  72. hiatal hernia
    caused by intra-abd pressure

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