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  1. I.                   The Scramble for Africa
    • a.      Little of continent controlled
    •                                                               i.      Earlier, when Euro economic interests were more limited (slave trade), Euroepan states were happy to deal with independent states rather than control territories
    •                                                             ii.      Western presence in Africa was limited to controlling the regional trade network and establishing a few footholds where the foreigners could carry on trade and missionary activity
    •                                                           iii.      Last two decades: quest for colonies led to land grab
  2. South Africa
    •                                                               i.      During Napoleonic wars, Brits established selves in S Africa by taking Cape Town
    •                                                             ii.      After: they encouraged settlers to come to Cape Coloniy
    • 1.      Brit policies disgusted the Boers (Afrikaners; descendents of Dutch colonists)à migration on Greak Trek to region between Orange and Vaal Rivers and north of the Vaal River 
  3. Brits vs. Boers
    • a.      Hostilities between the British and the Boers continued
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      1877: British governor of Cape Colony seized the Transvaal, but a Boer revolt led the British government to recognize Transvaal as the independent South African Republic.
    • 1.      These struggles between the Brits and Boers didn’t prevent either white group from killing the Zulu and Xhosa peoples of the region
  4. 1880s
    •                                                               i.      1880s: Brit policy in South Africa determined by Cecil Rhodes
    • 1.      Founded both diamond and gold companies that monopolized production of these precious commodities and enabled him to gain control of a territory north of the Transvaal that he named Rhodesia after himself
  5. Goal
    • 1.      Goal: create series of British colonies from Cape to Cairo linked by railroad
    • 2.      Ambitionsà downfall when Brits forced him to resign as prime minister of Cape Colony after he tried to overthrow Boer government of the SOurht African Republic without Brit approval à war
  6. The Boer War (1899-1902)
    • 1.      Boers’ guerrilla tacticsà Brit high casualties and expenses in winning
    • a.      450k Brits needed to defeat 87k Boers (22k Brit deaths)
    • 2.      Mass newspapers detailed war, causing oucry and arousing antiwar sentiment at home
    • 3.      War showed Brits that increased military and monetary investment would be needed to maintain the Brit empire
  7. Brit policy
    • 1.      Brit policy towards defeated Boers
    • a.      Transvaal and Orange Free sstte had rep governments by 1907 and in 1910, the Union of S. Africa was created
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Fully self governing within British empire
  8. Portuguese and French Possessions
    • 1.      Only other Euro settlements in Africa made by Portuguese and French
    • a.      Portuguese: angola and Mozambique
    • b.      Rench: conquest of Algeria
    • 2.      1880: euroepan scramble for possession of Africa began
    • 3.      1900: French had added the huge area of French W. Africa and Tunisia to African empire
    • a.      1912: established protectorate over Morocco; rest was Spain’s
  9. Other Brit Possessions
    • 1.      Interested in Egypt after Suez Canal opened by French
    • a.      Canal was route to india
    • b.      Egypt well established with autonomic Muslim government, but Brits still expeditioned there, claiming only temporary presence, btu establishing a protectorate over Egypt
  10. Egypt
    • 1.      From Egypt, they moved south into and seized Sudan after averting war with France
    • 2.      Italy joined in scramble, but defeated yb Ethiopians, causing second attempt, wherer they seized Ottoman Tripoli and remaned Libya
  11. Belgium and Central Africa
    • 1.      Popular interest in the dense tropic jungles of Central Africa from people lieke David Livingstone and Jenry M. Stanly
    • 2.      Real driving force: King Leopold II of Belgium
    • a.      Profit more important than progress
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Treated Africans brutally (condemned by other powers)
  12. 1876
    • a.      1876: he created the International Association for the Exploration and Civilization of Central Africa and engaged Henry Stanley to establish Belgian settlements in the Congo
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      French alarmed and moved into land north of Congo
  13. German Possessions
    • 1.      Entered ranks of imperialist powrs between 1884 and 1900
    • 2.      Bismarck downplayed colonies, but domestic political pressures for German empires led Bismarck to covnert to colonialism 
  14. Impact on Africa
    • 1.      1914: Brits, French, Germans, Belgium, Spain, and Portugal carved up Africa
    • a.      Only Liberia and Ethiopia free
    • 2.      Africa conquered by Euroepan states determined to create colonial empires
    • a.      Resisters were hurt by military force 
  15. 1898
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      1898: Sudanese tribesmen attempted to defend their independence and stop a Brit expedition armed with machine guns
    • 1.      Battle of Omdurman: Sudanese were massacred
    • a.      28 Brits dead vs. 11,000 Sudanese dead
  16. Military superiority
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Military superiority accompanied by brutal treatment of Blacks
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                             ii.      Euroepans didn’t hesitate to deceived the Africans fto gain way
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2013-03-26 18:57:43
HON 122

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