24.3.3

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Author:
DesLee26
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209661
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24.3.3
Updated:
2013-03-26 15:05:07
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HON 122
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HQ II
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  1. Imperialism in Asia
    • a.      Not much territory under European control
    •                                                               i.      Dutch: East Indies
    •                                                             ii.      Spanish: Philippines
    •                                                           iii.      French and Portuguese: Indian Coast
    •                                                           iv.      China, Japan, Korea, and SE Asia excluded Westerners
    •                                                             v.      Brits and Russians took most territory
  2. British
    •                                                               i.      Explorations of Australia by Captain James Cook between 1768 and 1771 led to interest in East
    • 1.      Availability of land for grazing sheep and discovery of gold in Australia led to influx of settlers who slaughtered indigenous inhabitants 
  3. British: 1850
    •                                                               i.      1850: Brit government granted various Australian colonies complete self-government, and 50 years later, on January 1, 1901, all colonies were unified into the Commonwealth of Ausralia
    • 1.      Nearby New Zealand (colony in 1840) granted dominion status in 1907
  4. Private trading company
    •                                                               i.      Private trading company (Brit East India Co) responsible for subjugating much of India
    • 1.      1858: after a revolt of the sepoys, or Indian troops of the EIC’s army, was crushed, the Brit Parliament transferred the company’s powers directly to the government in London
    •                                                             ii.      1876: title Empress of India was bestowed on Queen Victoria; Indians were her subjects
  5. Russians
    •                                                               i.      Logical outgrowth of its traditional territorial aggrandizement
    • 1.      Penetrated wilderness of Siberia and preached pacific in 1637
    •                                                             ii.      18th century: Russians established claim on Alaska, which they sold to US in 1867
    •                                                           iii.      Russian settlers moved into Siberia between 1800 and 1914, by which time 90% of Siberian population was Slavic, not Asiatic 
  6. Moved South
    •                                                               i.      Moved south due to warm climes and crumbling Ottomans
    • 1.      1830: control over northern coast of Black sSea and pressed on into C. Asia, securing trans-Caspian area by 1881 and Turkestan in 1885
    • a.      These advances brought Russians to borders of Persia and Afghanistan, where Brit interested because desire to protect holdings in India
  7. 1907: Brits and RUssians
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      1907: Brits and Russians agreed to make Afghanistan a buffer state between Russian Turkestan and British India and to divide Persia into two spheres of influence
    • 1.      Halted by Bris in their expanision to the south, the Russians moved east into Asia
  8. Russian occupation
    • a.      Russian occupation of Manchuria and an attempt to move into Koreaà war with Japan
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Lost Russo-Japanese War and agreed to Japanese protectorate in Korea; expansion of Asia halted
  9. China
    • 1.      Thrust of imperialism after 1880 led Westerners to move into areas of Asia that were free
    • 2.      19th: ruling Manchu dynasty of Chinese declining
    • a.      1842: Brits obtained island of Hong Kong and trading rights in Chinese cities
    • b.      Other nations wanted same things
    • c.       Chinese tried to resist foreign encroachmentà military defeats and new demands
  10. Great powers
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Great powers themselves prevented the complete dismemberment of the Chinese Empire
    • 1.      Instead, Brits, French, Germans, Russians, US, and Japan established influence and leases of Chinese territories
    • b.      1899: John Hay led to “open door” policy in which one country won’t restrict the commerce of the countries iin its sphere of influence 
  11. Japan and Korea
    1.      Japan avoided Western intrusion until 1853-1854, when American naval forces under Commodore Matthew Perry forced the Japanese to grant the US trading and diplomatic privileges 
  12. Japan avoided
    • 1.      Japan managed to avoid China’s fate
    • a.      Korea was largely excluded Westerners
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      The fate of Korea was determined by the struggle first between China and Japan in 1894-1895 and later between Japan and Russia I 1904-1905
    • 1.      Japan’s victories gave it clear superiority and in 1910, Japan annexed Korea
  13. SE Asia
    • 1.      Brit control over Burma and Malay States
    • 2.      France: Indochina
    • a.      City of Saigon was occupied in 1858, and four years later, Cochin China was taken
    • 3.      1880s: French extend “protection” over Cambodia, Annam, Tonkin, and Laos and organized them into Union of French Indochina
    • a.      Only Siam free as buffer state because of British-French rivalry
  14. American Imperialism
    • 1.      Pacific Islands were scene of great power competition and witnessed the entry of the US onto imperialism
    • a.      Samoan islands: first important American colony
    • b.      Hawaiin Islands next
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Pearl Harbor= naval station in 1887à American settlers gained control of sugar industry on islands
    • 1.      Hawaiins tried to reassert authorityà US Marines brought in 
  15. Hawaii annexed
    • 1.      Hawaii annexed in 1898 during era of American nationalistic fervor generated by the Spanish American War
    • a.      American defeat of Spain encouraged Americans to extend their empire by acquiring PR, Guan, and the Philippine Islands
  16. Filipinos
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Filipinos holed for independence, but Americans refused to grant it
    • 1.      Pres William McKinley: US had duty “to educate the Filipinos and christianze them”
    • a.      3 years ad 60k troops to pacify Phillipines and establish American control

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