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  1. I.                   Response to Imperialism
    •                                                               i.      Attempted to expel themà defeats due to industrial technology and modern weapons of war
    •                                                             ii.      Some accepted new governors
    •                                                           iii.      Adjusted to foreign rule
    • 1.      Tranditionalsit sought to maintain their cultural traditions, but modernizers believed that adoption of Western ways would enable them to reform their societies and challenge western rule
    • 2.      Most people stood between two exptremes
    • a.      Four different examples of responses: China, Africa, Japan, India
  2. Africa
    • 1.      New class of African leaders emerged in 20th
    • a.      Educated in colonial schools, they were the first generation of Africans to know West and write in their language
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Admired Wwestern culture and disliked their own, but still hated foreigner smore 
  3. Westerners
    • 1.      Westerners exatted democracy, equality and political freedom, but didn’t apply them to the colonies
    • a.      There wre few democratic institutions, and colonia peoples could hold only lowly jobs in the colonial bureaucracy
  4. Economic prosperity
    • a.      Equally important, economic prosperity of the West never extended to colonies
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      To many Africans, colonialism meant loss of their farmlands or terrible jobs on plantations or in sweatshops and factories run by foreigners
  5. Middle-class Africans
    • 1.      Although middle-class Africans did not suffer to the extent that poor peasants or workers on plantations did, they had complaints
    • a.      They usually qualified only for menial jobs in the government or business
    • b.      Purported superiorty of the Euopeans over the natives was expressed in several ways
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Segregated clubs, schools, and churches were set up as more European officials brought wives and began to raise families
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Europeans also addressed natives by first names or called the adult males “boy”
  6. Conditions
    • 1.      Conditionsà complicated feelings about colonial masters and civilization
    • a.      Willing to admit superiority of many aspects of W culture, but hated colonial rule and were determined to assert their own nationality and cultural destiny 
  7. Mix of hopes and resentments
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Out of this mixture of hopes and resentments emerged the first stirrings of modern nationalism iin Africa
    • 1.      During the first quarter of the 20th century, in colonial societies across Africa, educated native peoples began to organize political parties and movements seeking the end of foreign rule
  8. China
    • 1.      The humiliation of China by the Western powers led to much antiforeign violence, but the Westerners used this lawlessness as an excuse to extort further concessions from the Chinese
    • a.      Major outburst of violence against foreigners occurred in the Boxer Rebellion in 1900-1901
  9. Boxers
    • a.      Boxer Rebellion in 1900-1901
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      “Boxers”- name givent o Chinese who belonged to a secret organization called the Society of Harmonious Fists
    • 1.      Aim: to push the foreigners out of China
    • a.      Murdered oreign missionaries, Chinese who had converted to Christianity, railroad workers, foreign businessmen, and even the German envoy to Beijing
  10. Responses to killings
    • a.      Allied army consisting of Brits, French, German, Russian, American, and Japs attacked Beijing, restored order, and demanded more concessions from the Chinese government
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      The imperial governemtn was so weakened that the forces of the revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen, who adopted a program of “nationalism, democracy, and socialism,” overthrew the Manchu dynasty in 1912
    • 1.      the new Republic of China remained weak and ineffectinve, and cChina’s travails were far from over
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2013-03-26 19:08:52
HON 122

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