Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)

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Anonymous
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209664
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Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
Updated:
2013-03-26 15:11:13
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Biology
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Description:
Advanced Higher Biology - Unit Three - Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
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  1. What is athersclerosis?
    The accumulation of plaque under the endothelial lining of he artery.
  2. What causes athersclerosis?
    If the wall of an artery is injured low density lipoproteins (LDL) add chloesterol to the cells under the endothelial lining of the artery.  Phagocytic cells then move under the lining to tremove the cholesterol.  However, these phagocytic cells turn into foam cells which accumulate.  Next fibroplast builds up within the artery wall.  This fibrous material gradually hardens due to a build up of calcium eading to the formatio of a hard plaque under the endothelial lining.
  3. What are the possible risk factors for athersclerosis?
    • High fat diet
    • Smoking
    • High blood pressure
    • Diabetes
    • Alcohol
    • Obesity
  4. What are the possible symtoms and treatments for athersclerosis?
    • There is not really any symptoms for athersclerosis until it causes a more serious CVD such as a stroke or heart attack
    • Treatment is mainly preventative - healthy diet, exercise, lower chloesterol & blood pressure, dont smoke, etc.  Sometimes surgery is required (bypass surgery)
  5. What is thrombosis?
    A blood clot within a blood vessel (blocks a vein artery).
  6. What causes thrombosis?
    Platelets can attach to the inner surface of the artery and then start to release clotting factors.  This leads to the formation of a thrombus in the artery.  If the thrombus blocks the artery completely a thrombosis occurs cutting off the blood supply to the cells that are usually supplied by that artery.
  7. What is the difference between a thrombus and an embolus?
    A thrombus is a clot that stays where it originated whereas an embolus is a free-floating clot that has moved along the artery until it blocks a smaller part of the system.
  8. What are the possible risk factors for thrombosis?
    • Inactivity
    • Pregnancy
    • Vessel damage
    • Obesity
    • Smoking
    • Age (being over 60)
  9. What are the possible symptoms and treatments for thrombosis?
    • Symptoms include pain & swelling in legs, heavy ache in affected area, warm skin in clot area, etc.  If not treated the clot can move to lugs and cause breathlessness, chest pain, sudden collapse (pulmonary embolism)
    • Treatment means making lifestyle changes - improve diet, increase exercise, stop smoking, etc
  10. What is angina pectoris?
    When the heart muscles do not get enough oxygen
  11. What causes angina pectoris?
    Narrowing or blockages of the coronary arteris that deliver oxygen-tich blood to the heart
  12. What are the possible risk factors for angina pectoris?
    • High cholesterol
    • Smoking
    • High blood pressure
    • Diabetes
    • Obesity
  13. What are the possible symptoms and treatments for angina pectoris?
    • Symptoms include pain in the chest, shortness of breath, anxiousness, nausea, etc
    • If untreated it can lead to a heart attack
  14. What is a myocardial infarction?
    A heart attack - when the blood flow to a part of the heart is blocked for long enough that part of your heart muscle is damaged or dies
  15. What causes a myocardial infarction?
    A blood clot that blocks one of the coronary arteries
  16. What are the possible risk factors for myocardial infarction?
    • Age - more common in people over 50
    • Gender - men are more likely to have a heart attack than women
    • Smoking
    • High blood pressure
    • Obesity
    • High cholesterol
    • Inactivity
    • Bad diet
    • Family history
  17. What are the possible symptoms and treatments for a heart attack?
    • Symptoms include severe chest pain, pain travelling up to jaw and down left arm, sweating, etc
    • Treatments include taking aspirin and other antiplatelet medicines, injections of heparin (like warfarin it thins your blood), beta blocker medicines, and lifestyle changes
  18. What is hypertension?
    The prolonged elevation of a persons blood pressure
  19. What causes hypertension?
    The constriction of the arteries due to athersclerosis and/or the lack of elasticity in the arterial walls
  20. What are the possible risk factors for hypertension?
    • High fat diet
    • Obesity
    • Genetic predisposition
    • Stress
    • Smoking
  21. What are the possible symptoms and treatments for hypertension?
    • Symptomless in early stages but ultimately puts excessive strain on the heart and if left untreated can lead to stroke or heart attack or death
    • Treatments include altering the sufferers diet and exercise, and prescribing appropriate medicine
  22. What is a cerebral infarction?
    A stroke - when the blood flow to part of the brain stops for longer than a few seconds, leading to a lack of oxygen which causes the death of brain cells which could sometimes lead to permanent damage
  23. What causes a cerebral infarction?
    A blood clot blocking the artery to the brain or a blockage of an artery by an embolus
  24. What are the possible risk factors for cerebral infarction?
    • Bad diet
    • Smoking
    • Diabetes
    • Lack of exercise
    • Having hypertension
    • Genetic predisposition
  25. What are the possible symptoms and treatments for cerebral infarction?
    • Symptoms include headache, change in alertness, change in hearing, change in ability to feel pain, loss of balance, confusion. muscle weakness in face, arms and legs, change in personality, etc
    • Treatments are mainly preventative as once the brain is damaged there is not very much that can be done to fix it
  26. Give four examples of a non-modifiable risk factor
    • Race
    • Age
    • Gender
    • Genetics / heredity
  27. Give four examples of modifiable risk factors
    • Smoking
    • Obesity
    • Diet
    • Activity

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