Patho Exam 2 - leukocyte disorders
Card Set Information
Patho Exam 2 - leukocyte disorders
Boston College CRNA program
Hemotologic cards for exam 2 starting from WBCs (after anemia) and ending prior to hemostasis
What is a WBC called?
Which leukocyte maintains normal host defenses against invading microbes and foreign substances? (bacteria)
Which leukocyte plays a role in allergic reactions and parasite infections?
Which leukocyte in involved in allergic and hypersensitivity reactions?
These leukocytes have granules:
neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
These leukocytes do not contain granules:
These leukocytes participate in the immune response to defend against microorganisms:
All bood cells are derived from....
pluripotent stem cells
What is a granule?
What is a monocyte called when it enters the tissues?
Macrophages play a role in inflammation and immune response (T/F):
What is neutrophilia indicative of?
What is a "left shift" and what does it mean?
increased proportion of neutrophils and premature neurtophil precursor cells....INFECTION
What is neutropenia?
decreased neutrophils in blood, SUSCEPTIBLE TO INFECTION
What is another name for neutropenia?
What is lymphocytosis?
increased proportion of lymphocytes....indicates infection, particularly VIRAL (especially in children)
Normally, lymphocytes are 20-40% of circulating WBCs in the body
What can cause lymphadenopathy?
infection, autoimmune disease, malignancy
Is infectious mononucleosis viral or bacterial?
infection of B-lymphocytes
Most adults have not been exposed to mononucleosis. (T/F)
False. 90% have been exposed.
Mononucleosis causes a proliferation of granulocytes (T/F)
False. It causes lymphocytes to proliferate (it is VIRAL, not bacterial).
What virus usually causes mono?
What happens in mono after the unaffected B-cells mount an antibody response?
Cytotoxic T-cells (CD8/"Downey" cells) are activated
What are some S&S of EBV?
fever, fatigue, sore throat
Which type of lymphoma is more common in the US, T or B?
B cell lymphoma
What are the two type of lymphomas?
This is the 5th most common type of cancer death in the US
You are most likely to develop NHL as a child, risk decreases with age (T/F).
FALSE. average age is 65yo...risk increases with age
Men are more likely to develop NHL. T/F
Most NHLs are B cell (T/F).
Burkitt lymphoma is a B cell lymphoma.
TRUE. B for Burkitt, B for B-cell
This is the most common type of childhood cancer in Central Africa.
Burkitt lymphoma is caused by a chromosomal 8 translocation. T/F
Burkitt lymphoma can be cured. T/F
More than half can be cured with intensive chemo.
You are more likely to develop Burkitt lymphoma if you are immunocomprimised. T/F
Burkit lymphoma grows slowly. T/F
False...rapid, aggressive (fast growing) B cell NHL
Hodgkin Lymphoma diagnosis has a grim prognosis.
Not necessarily; 85% 5 year survival rate, high cure rate
If you have mono, you will be immune to HL.
FALSE. Increased risk with pt with hx of mono (~20% of the time)
What type of lymphoma is characterized by Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells?
When are you most likely to develop HL?
Hodgkin lymphoma originates in the lymph node. T/F
Stage of Hodgkin's with single lymph node region
Stage of Hodgkin's with two or more lymph node regions on the same side of the diaphragm
Stage of Hodgkin's with involvement of lymph node regions on both sides of the diaphragm.
Stage of Hodgkin's with multiple foci of involvement of one or more extralymphatic organs or tissues.
Lymph node involvement/enlargement of neck and shoulders are rare in HL.
False - 80 to 90% of the time the neck or shoulder nodes are involved
What is the most common type of cancer in children and adolescents?
Leukemia is caused by rapid proliferation of highly differentiated cells. T/F
FALSE...POORLY differentiated cells (immature)
The type of leukemia in the bone marrow
myelogenous (bone marrow makes RBCs and PLTs)
The type of leukemia in the B cells
lymphocytic (most involve B cells)
If you have Downs, you have a higher risk of leukemia. T/F
True. 10x the risk.
The WBCs associated with acute leukemia are more immature than those in chronic leukemia.
True. The WBCs in chronic are still abnormal, but nore mature than the acute type.
The most common type of leukemia in children is...
ALL (acute lymphoblastic/lymphocytic leukemia)
How is ALL diagnosed?
bone marrow biopsy
How do plasma cell neoplasms cause anemia?
More plasma cells = less room for RBCs
How do plasma cell neoplasms lead to easy infections?
more plasma cells = less room for WBCs
What is the most common type of plasma cell neoplasm?
Multiple myeloma (MM)
Why is thrombocytopenia possible with plasma cell neoplasms?
more plasma cells = less room for platelets
Atom Bomb survivors and workers at nuclear reactors have a higher incidence of this type of neoplasm:
multiple myeloma (MM)...so radiation could be a cause
Bence-Jones proteins are light chains of antibodies detectible in the serum and urine and are associated with...
Multiple myeloma...lead to proteinuria
Most common clinical manifestations of MM:
hypercalcemia, compression fractures,
abnormal bleeding, serum hyper-viscosity
The antibody proteins that build up in the bone marrow and cause blood to thicken or damage the kidneys in multiple myeloma are:
IgG or IgA
In multiple myeloma, bone is reabsorbed and destroyed. T/F
true - osteoblasts proliferate
What is it called when the alternate form of M protein deposits in various locations, which displaces and harms normal tissues (heart, kidney, etc)
Most common cause of death in MM is...
2nd most common cause of death in MM is...