PLSC 221 Lab One

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mct
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PLSC 221 Lab One
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2013-03-26 23:17:50
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Lab One
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  1. Photosynthesis
    The unique function of plants whereby solar energy is converted into stored energy that all organisms, both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic depend on. This also requires water, nutrients and atmospheric gases, and plant cells are perfectly designed to obtain these as well
  2. Multicellular plants
    More than one cell
  3. Specialized cells
    unique structure to fill an unique need (such as xylem vessel elements)
  4. Tissues
    May have many different specialized cells within them.
  5. Chloroplasts
    Cellular organelles where photosynthesis occurs, and are unique features of plant cells.
  6. Cell wall
    Outmost part of the cell. Contain carbohyrdates such as cellulose, pectin, and/or ligning
  7. Plasma membrane (plasmalemma)
    • Often appears as a thick outline to each cell. Double layer lipid membrane.
    • Semi-permeable to regulate the movement of chemicals into and out of the cell.
  8. Plasmodesmata
    Pores in the cell walls between two cells where water and materials are exchanged across plasma membranes of the adjacent cells
  9. Cytoplasm
    The fluid inside any cell membrane in which many chloroplasts are floating in a plant cell
  10. Cytoplasmic streaming
    The movement of chloroplasts within a plant cell.  Streaming is important to help transfer material into and out of cells.
  11. Nucleus
    the large dark and circular mass where the genetic information of the plant is contained within deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
  12. Central vacuole
    membrane-bound, fluid-filled organelles that provide structure within the plant cell and store both water and nutrients.
  13. Pigment anthocyanin
    • is water soluble and only found within the vacuole. 
    • A water soluble pigment found in cell sap; anthocyanins vary in color from red to blue
  14. Mitosis
    process by which cells undergo division to produce two identical daughter cells from a single parent cell
  15. Interphase
    Is the only phase in the cell cycle that is not a part of mitosis.  The nucleus appears as a dark mass, and a smaller darker nucleolus may be visible within the nucleus.  DNA replication occurs at this stage, but actual strands of DNA and chromosomes are not visible
  16. Nucleolus
    A somewhat spherical body within a nucleus; contains primarily RNA and protein; there may be more than one nucleolus per nucleus
  17. Prophase
    Occurs when the nucleus takes on a more grainy appearance, because chromosomes thicken and become visible, while the nucleolus disappears
  18. Metaphase
    occurs when all the chromosomes become aligned along the middle axis of the nucleus, approximately half-way along the spindle. This line up of chromosomes is sometimes called the metaphase plate, and is a means to organize all chromosomes to ensure each new cell will have a copy of each chromosome
  19. Microtubules
    begin to form a spindle spanning the interior of the cell, in prophase, with anchor points at opposite poles of the cell.  Just before the next phase, the nuclear membrane dissolves and proteins connect the chromosomes to the microtubule spindle
  20. Anaphase
    Spans the time it takes for a paired chromosome to split and move to opposite poles of the cell along the microtubule spindle.  Because each chromosome is physically moved toward the poles, the chromosomes will actually bend to give the appearance of resistance and drag
  21. Telophase
    Occurs when all chromosomes have arrived at the two poles and new membranes have formed around the daughter nuclei.  The chromosomes rapidly disperse, and it is rare to see the condensed form as you did in prophase.  The spindle also disappears and various organelles are replicated and sorted to each side of the cell
  22. Cytokinesis
    is the last stage in cell division, when each new cell forms an enveloping plasma membrane, and a cell plate begins to develop between the two membrane where new cell-wall material beings to be manufactured
  23. Parenchyma cells
    • are thin walled cells and are living at maturity. The onion cell is a good example of a parenchyma cell
    • This is the most common type of plant cell
  24. Collenchyma cell
    Cells have unevenly thickened cell walls and are living
  25. Sclerenchyma
    • Cells are dead at maturity, have thick cell walls and are composed of two types: fibers - long narrow cells; and schlereids - various shapes
    • Tissue composed of lignified cells with thick walls; the tissue functions primarily in strengthening and support
  26. Solute concentration
    • In solution, similar to equilibrium.  In a liquid or gaseous environment, most chemicals disperse themselves in space to maintain equilibrium
    • But barriers like plasma membrane inhibit this
  27. Concentration gradient
    created or maintained by plasma membrane preventing or promoting the movement of a solute into or out of the cell
  28. Passive diffusion,
    the plasma membrane does not exert control over the movement of an electrically neutral solute
  29. Facilitated diffusion or active transport
    Specific channels or energy requiring pumps in the plasma membrane move solutes into or out of a cell against the concentration gradient; or from a low area to a high one
  30. Osmosis
    Is  a special case of passive diffusion that involves the movement of water in and out of cells.  All cells need water to survive, and the most abundant chemical in the cell is water.
  31. Chlorenchyma
    Tissue composed of parenchyma cells that contain chloroplasts
  32. Lipid
    A general term for fats, fatty substances and oils
  33. Lumen
    inside space of a cellular component or structure
  34. Respiration
    The cellular breakdown of sugar and other foods, accompanied by release of energy; in aerobic respiration, oxygen is utilized

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