Card Set Information
Animal Diseases Four
What is the musculoskeletal system used for?
What causes the rigid frame, flexible articulations, and pulleys of the musculoskeletal system?
: muscles, tendons, ligaments
What are the different problems with the musculoskeletal system?
cruciate ligament disease
aseptic femoral head necrosis
What are the two types of cruciate ligaments?
cranial (anterior) and caudal (posterior)
What do the cruciate ligaments do?
stabilize the stifle joint
What happens if the cruciate ligaments rupture or tear?
What does instability of the stifle joint lead to?
What animal does cruciate ligament tears usually happen in?
What is the most common cruciate ligament rupture?
cranial cruciate rupture
What is the typical signalment for a cruciate ligament rupture?
obese or highly active, athletic
What are the clinical signs of a dog with a cruciate ligament rupture?
non-weight bearing lameness
appears to be in pain if leg is used
stifle swelling (effusion)
usually acute onset
How do we diagnose a cruciate ligament rupture?
anterior drawer sign - cranial drawer movement
tibia slide forward
may need to sedate to get the drawer sign due to pain or muscle spasms
What is the treatment for a ruptured cruciate ligament?
surgical stabilization of the stifle joint
try to decrease the development of DJD (degenerative joint disease)
may need to repair torn menisci - meniscal "click"
How do we educate clients on a cruciate ligament rupture?
restrict exercise for 3 - 6 weeks
gradually increase to full exercise in about 12 weeks
opposite cruciate often ruptures within one year of the first rupture
weight reduction is important
DJD will occur to some extent even with surgical stabilization
What are the different types of patellar luxation?
medial and lateral luxation
What does luxation mean?
Which animal is a patellar luxation a frequent problem in?
can occasionally happen in cats
Which types of dogs are prone to patellar luxation?
toy and miniature breeds
What are the different ways an animal gets a patellar luxation?
can be congenital
induced by trauma
_____ of patellar luxations are medial.
70 - 80%
What are the clinical signs of a patellar luxation?
intermittent gait abnormalities
sudden rear leg lameness
skipping or hopping gait
leads to DJD
How do we diagnose a patellar luxation?
palpation - try to luxate the patella
radiographs - may see anatomic abnormalities
How do we treat a patellar luxation?
surgery is the treatment of choice
What is the goal for treating a patellar luxation?
stabilize joint, prevent DJD
returen patella to its functional position
How do we educate clients of patellar luxation?
limit exercise after surgery
NSAIDs as needed for pain
some degree of DJD later in life
What does OCD stand for?
What is osteochondrosis?
degeneration or necrosis of bone and cartilage, followed by reossification
What is osteochondrosis dissecans?
defect in endochondral ossification - cartilage thickens
lower layers of cartilage unable to obtain nutrients and dies
dead cartilage pulls away from the bone
may pull loose into the joint - joint mice
Which joints is OCD seen in? Which one is the most common?
shoulder, stifle, hock, elbow
most commonly seen in the shoulder
Which dogs do we often see OCD in?
lameness in large breed dogs
What age do we often see OCD?
3 - 18 months of age
What are the clinical signs of OCD?
juvenile bone disease
pain during palpation
pain during range of motion manipulations
How do we diagnose OCD?
radiographs - OCD lesions
How do we treat OCD?
if caught early - rest and weight control
if patient is lame - surgical removal of flap, mouse
curettage of lesion to stimulate fibrocartilage formation
disease is often bilateral
What does ROM stand for?
range of movement
What are some other names for panosteitis?
What causes panosteitis?
What age do we often see panosteitis?
6 - 14 months
What types of dogs do we often see panosteitis?
young, rapidly growing large or giant breeds
What does panosteitis affect?
affects bone marrow and endosteum
bone marrow degeneration
What are the clinical signs of panosteitis?
cyclic lameness, shifting leg lameness
one or multiple legs
usually acute, no history of trauma
Which bones are affected by panosteitis?
long bones affected: ulna, humerus, radius, femur, tibia
How do we diagnose panosteitis?
palpation of long bones is painful
may be lethargic and febrile
radiographs - changes in medullary cavity - dense patches
radiographic changes may not correlate with clinical signs
How do we treat panosteitis?
How do we educate clients on panosteitis?
waxes and wanes
clinical recovery usually by 18 months of age
eventually complete recovery
What are other names for aseptic femoral head necrosis?
Is aseptic femoral head necrosis a congenital disease?
What bones are involved with aseptic femoral head necrosis?
involves femoral head and neck
Which animals does aspetic femoral head necrosis affect?
miniatures, small breeds, terriers
When do dogs get aseptic femoral head necrosis?
during late phase of growth
What are the clinical signs of aspetic femoral head necrosis?
rear limb lameness
pain in coxofemoral joint
atrophy of thigh muscles
irritability and chewing at hip
How do we diagnose aseptic femoral head necrosis?
radiographs: decreased bone density in the femoral head and neck, flattened femoral head, osteophyes - bone spurs and bony overgrowths
What is the treatment for aseptic femoral head necrosis?
FHO - femoral head and neck ostectomy - is the treatment of choice
both limbs may be affected
want early use of limb after surgery
do not breed affected dogs
What is the most prevalent disorders of the canine hip?
Hip dysplasia is rarely seen in dogs under _____.
What factors contribute to hip dysplasia?
disparity of muscle mass and rapid skeletal growth
What does joint laxity from hip dysplasia lead to?
What are the clinical signs of hip dysplasia?
lameness - from barely detectable to non-weight bearing
bunny-hopping - advancement of both rear limbs at the same time
pain elicited on joint extension
atrophy of thigh muscles
difficulty rising and stiffness - will often "warm out" of
reluctance to stand or move
How do we diagnose hip dysplasia?
radiographs: subluxation, DJD, flattening of femoral head, osteophytes of femoral neck
How do we treat hip dysplasia?
: weight control, exercise, anti-inflammatory drugs, nutraceuticals (Adequan, Cosequin)
: FHO, total hip replacement, triple pelvic osteotomy
How do we educate clients on hip dysplasia?
do not breed affected dogs
puppies born to parents without hip dysplasia may develop hip dysplasia
After we breed a dog, when do we take hip dysplasia radiographs? What are the different certification groups?
radiograph hips at 2 years old
What is the most common skeletal neoplasia in dogs and cats?
Which animals are the most affected by osteosarcoma?
mature large and giant breed dogs about 7 years old
Which bones are the most affected by osteosarcoma?
What are the clinical signs of osteosarcoma?
pain, swelling in affect limb
dyspnea from metastatic lesions
How do we diagnose osteosarcoma?
radiographs of limbs
thoracic radiographs to check for metastasis
How do we treat osteosarcoma?
limb amputation with chemotherapy
most treatment survival rates are less than 12 months