Crop Production Test #2
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Morphology defined is?
study of the physical characteristics of an organism
What are the seven major plant parts?
- 2. Stem
- 3. Leaves
- 5. Flower
- 6. Fruit
What is the four main functions of roots?
What is the embryonic root called? (aka the primary root)
Tap roots are found in what kind of plant?
Fibrous roots are found in what?
T of F: Fibrous roots have no single dominant root
Fibrous roots typically remain _________ in term of the location?
close to the surface of the soil
What are root hairs?
Extensions of the root epidermal cells, single cell's of the roots outer layer, site of all water and nutrient uptake
The relationship between plant roots and soil inhabiting microorganisms
What is mutualistic symbiosis?
Where both parties are benefited from the relationship
What is an adventitious root?
Roots formed from non-root parts
What is an example of an adventitious root?
Prop Roots; typically in growing monocots
Roots also act as _________ organs.
What are some examples of roots as storage organs?
Sweet potato, carrot, radish
Stem defined is?
An elongated axis on which the lateral appendages are attached
What are the four stem functions?
- support- leaves, flower, fruit
- Conduction- water, minerals, food
- Sight of New growth
- Storage - food and water
What is the node?
The point of attachment of buds and appendages in dicots
Portion of stem between nodes
The growing point of dicots?
is the shoot, turns into leaves or flowers
What are the two bud types in dicots?
Terminal Bud, Axillary Bud
What is the function of buds in dicots?
- Responsible for initial growth and elongation of shoot, gives rise to major components:
- c)reproductive organs
Upwardly, water and minerals
Both up and down, food conduction
Vascular bundles in dicots are arrranged?
In rings toward the outer layer of the stem
As a dicot grows if it produces a secondary xylem it is known as a?
In a dicot if it does not procuse a secondary xylem it is known as?
In monocots the stem is known as the?
Vascular bundles in monocots?
scattered throughout, doesn't produce secondary xylem
What is the growing point of monocots?
The crown, located at ground level
What is a rhizome?
A horizontal underground stem
What is an example of a rhizome?
What is a stolon?
A horizontal above ground stem
What is an example of a stolon?
What is a tiller?
vertically growing stem
What is a tuber?
- The elongated terminal portion of a rhizome
- Ex: Potatoes
What is a tendril?
- Slender coiling stem structure that are sensitive to contact
- Ex: Ivy
What are the four main functions of the leaves?
- Photosynthesis- Sunlight Absorption
What are the four parts of the monocot leaf?
- Leaf blade-site of photosynthesis
- Leaf sheath - wraps around culm
- Ligule - point of attachment between blade and sheath
- Auricle - project from sheath
What are the three parts of a dicot leaf?
- Leaf blade - site of photosynthesis
- Petiole - stalk on which blade attaches to stem
- Stipules - Stem like outgrowths at the base of petiole
What is the flowers functions?
- Reproductive structures
- Attract Pollinators
What is the Calyx?
collective term for the sepals
What are the sepals?
Encloses the outer parts of the flower
What is the corolla
Collective term for the petals
What is the stamen?
The male parts
What parts are included in the stamen?
- Anther - site of pollen production
- Filament - supports anther
What is the pistil (carpel)?
The female parts
What parts are included in the pistil?
- Ovary - contains the ovule
- Stigma - Site of pollen inception
- Style- Supports the stigma
What is an inflorescence?
Flower bearing branch, or "seed head"
What is a spikelet?
Basic unit of an inflorescence
What are the three types of inflorescence?
- Spiked -attached directly
- Raceme - spikelet attached to short stalk
- Panicle - central axis branched
What are the glumes?
Envelope the spikelet and serve as protection
What are florets?
Individual flower within the spikelet
What are the two types of bracts?
Palea and Lemma
What is the tip that extends out on the Lemma called?
Awn or Beard
What are complete flowers?
Contain all four main parts; corolla, calyx, pistil, stamen
What is an incomplete flower?
Is missing at least on of the four main parts
What is a perfect flower?
Both pistil and stamen are located on the same flower
What is an imperfect flower?
Missing either stamen or pistil
What is a monoecious plant?
Plant with both sexes
What is a diecious plant?
Plant with only one sex
What is a fruit?
A ripened ovary
What is the pericarp?
What are the three layers of the pericarp?
Exocarp, Mesocarp, Endocarp
What is a berry and give an example.
Fleshy endocarp, peach or banana
What is a dried fruit and give an example.
pericarp layers are indistinguishable, nuts
What is a caryopsis?
grass fruit, pericarp is fused with seed
What is a seed?
What is a seed composed of?
embryo , cotelydon, and/or endosperm
What is a dicot seed composed of?
Testa, Cotelydons, Embryo
What is the testa?
What are the cotelydons?
Seed leaves, provides energy
What is the radicle?
What is the hypocotyl?
Stem below cotelydons
What is the epicotyl?
Stem above the cotelydons
What is the hilum?
Point of attachment of seed to ovule
In monocot seeds, caryopsis, what is the energy storage material?
What is the scutellum?
The single cotelydon, in monocot
What is the pumule?
What is the Radicle?
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