biotic and abiotic factors present in an organisms surroundings
A species occurs in a particular location because...
it moved there or evovled there
A species isn't in a particular location because...
It is extinct or couldn't get there
Solar energy inputs drive global climates...
Every place receives the same total number of HOURS of sunlight each year but not the same amount of ENERGY
area between high and low tides
shallower water associated with continental plates
light penetration is sufficient for photosynthesis
where marine water meets fresh water, unique organisms, fisheries, spawning, provide protection and buffering
warm waters, top of photic zone, primary productivity, rich in biodiversity
current, sunlight, and nutrients are important
lakes and ponds, lakes classified by size origin and productivity
standing water biomes
low productivity, low nutrients
true food, too many nutrients, high productivity
between the extremes of high and low productivity/nutrients
classified by size, streamlets, large rivers, rapid turnover rate
flowing water biomes
rivers have been important for providing development of civilization...
provide drinking water, irrigation, food source, and hydropower
swamps/marshes, transitional area between terrestrial and aquatic systems
warm temps, days 11-12 hours long year round, variable rainfall, among most complex of biomes, rainfall>250 cm per year
grasslands w/scattered trees, warm year-round, 30-5- cm rainfall, dramatic seasonal variation, grass and scattered trees, large grazing animals
driest of all biomes, low and unpredictabe rainfall, cold deserts at high altitudes, hot deserts closer to equator
west side of continents at moderate latitude, cool ocean waters, cool rainy winters, hot dry summers
north american prairie, mostly treeless, cold winters, hot summers
wide range of temps, actual leaves on trees, a lot of moisture
temperate broadleaf forest
few species of trees, spruce and pine, northern hemisphere, TIAGA-LARGEST BIOME ON EARTH, long cold winters, short wet summers
extremely cold, simple vegetation, limited drainage, short season of growth and reproduction
an action carried out by the muscles or glands under the control of the nervous system in response to an environmental cue
the immediate reason for the behavior (how)
-how is it triggered by stimuli?
-what physiological and anatomical mechanisms play a role?
-what underlying genetic factors are at work?
-the answers to questions about the immediate mechanism for a behavior
the evolutionary explanations for behavior
complex decision based on food availability, mating opportunities, safety from predators
difference between the energy the animal would have expended in rest and the energy expended in the behavior
increased chance of being injured or killed as a result of performing the behavior
sum of benefits the animal forfeits by not being able to perform other behaviors during the same time interval
assumes that natural selection has molded the behavior of animals so that they solve problems by making the best choices available to them
predicts that animal's feeding behavior should provide minimal energy gain with minimal energy expense and minimal risk of being eaten while foraging
optimal foraging theory
What are male strategies?
mate with many females, sperm production not limited, prevent other males from mating with females
What are female strategies?
Choose high quality males, choose high quality sites, barter for cupulations (nuptial gifts)