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2013-03-26 21:06:58

third bio test, biomes and behavior of animals
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  1. Living, conspecifics, predators, prey
  2. Non-living, climate, weather, soil
  3. biotic and abiotic factors present in an organisms surroundings
  4. A species occurs in a particular location because...
    it moved there or evovled there
  5. A species isn't in a particular location because...
    It is extinct or couldn't get there
  6. Solar energy inputs drive global climates...
    Every place receives the same total number of HOURS of sunlight each year but not the same amount of ENERGY
  7. area between high and low tides
    intertidal zone
  8. shallower water associated with continental plates
    continental shelf
  9. open ocean
  10. the bottom
    benthic realm
  11. light penetration is sufficient for photosynthesis
    photic zone
  12. insufficient light
    aphotic zone
  13. where marine water meets fresh water, unique organisms, fisheries, spawning, provide protection and buffering
  14. warm waters, top of photic zone, primary productivity, rich in biodiversity
    coral reefs
  15. current, sunlight, and nutrients are important
    freshwater biomes
  16. lakes and ponds, lakes classified by size origin and productivity
    standing water biomes
  17. low productivity, low nutrients
    oligotrophic lakes
  18. true food, too many nutrients, high productivity
    eutrophic lakes
  19. between the extremes of high and low productivity/nutrients
    mesotrophic lakes
  20. classified by size, streamlets, large rivers, rapid turnover rate
    flowing water biomes
  21. rivers have been important for providing development of civilization...
    provide drinking water, irrigation, food source, and hydropower
  22. swamps/marshes, transitional area between terrestrial and aquatic systems
  23. warm temps, days 11-12 hours long year round, variable rainfall, among most complex of biomes, rainfall>250 cm per year
    tropical rainforest
  24. grasslands w/scattered trees, warm year-round, 30-5- cm rainfall, dramatic seasonal variation, grass and scattered trees, large grazing animals
  25. driest of all biomes, low and unpredictabe rainfall, cold deserts at high altitudes, hot deserts closer to equator
  26. west side of continents at moderate latitude, cool ocean waters, cool rainy winters, hot dry summers
  27. north american prairie, mostly treeless, cold winters, hot summers
    temperate grasslands
  28. wide range of temps, actual leaves on trees, a lot of moisture
    temperate broadleaf forest
  29. few species of trees, spruce and pine, northern hemisphere, TIAGA-LARGEST BIOME ON EARTH, long cold winters, short wet summers
    coniferous forests
  30. extremely cold, simple vegetation, limited drainage, short season of growth and reproduction
  31. an action carried out by the muscles or glands under the control of the nervous system in response to an environmental cue
  32. the immediate reason for the behavior (how)
    -how is it triggered by stimuli?
    -what physiological and anatomical mechanisms play a role?
    -what underlying genetic factors are at work?
    -the answers to questions about the immediate mechanism for a behavior
    Proximate causes
  33. the evolutionary explanations for behavior
    Ultimate causes
  34. complex decision based on food availability, mating opportunities, safety from predators
    habitat selection
  35. difference between the energy the animal would have expended in rest and the energy expended in the behavior
    energetic cost
  36. increased chance of being injured or killed as a result of performing the  behavior
    risk cost
  37. sum of benefits the animal forfeits by not being able to perform other behaviors during the same time interval
    opportunity cost
  38. assumes that natural selection has molded the behavior of animals so that they solve problems by making the best choices available to them
  39. predicts that animal's feeding behavior should provide minimal energy gain with minimal energy expense and minimal risk of being eaten while foraging
    optimal foraging theory
  40. What are male strategies?
    mate with many females, sperm production not limited, prevent other males from mating with females
  41. What are female strategies?
    Choose high quality males, choose high quality sites, barter for cupulations (nuptial gifts)