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- People and/or events occurring closely in
- time or space are associated.
Against the Person
Also known as “Ad hominem” or “to the
- Arguments that ignore the issue and
- instead attacks the person making the argument or a person or group associated
- with the cause
More specific form of the fallacy -
Appeal to emotion
- When tactics are used to encourage pity
- for some cause
Used by fund raisers to solicit funds
- by attorneys to elicit pity for clients in attempt to get sentence reduced
- A technique designed to get someone to
- take a course of action or agree with some position because so many others do.
- An attempt to influence through
- statements made by known or respected individuals
Also known as a Black/White fallacy
- of argument that makes it appear that there are only two possible choices
to Pride or Snobbery
More specific form of the fallacy -
Appeal to emotion
- Involves use of praise or flattery to
- elicit support for conclusion
Omission of unfavorable information
A simple restatement of the conclusion
- “Voter turn out was low because no one
- came to the polls.”
Sometimes referred to as a nonsequitur.
- Premises are unrelated to conclusion or
- conclusion does not follow from the premise(s)
- “I should be able to build my deck
- because you have a dog house”
Also known as the fallacy
of the continuum.
Describes a domino effect
- A false argument that says one change
- will release a whole avalanche of adverse changes.
- a very weak counterargument is presented as the opposition’s entire argument.
Also called a hasty generalization.
- false argument that says what is true of the parts is also true of the whole
- Fallacious when the part is
- uncharacteristic or not representative of the whole
- red head has a terrible temper therefore all red heads have bad tempers
- A false idea that says because there is
- no evidence to support a conclusion then the conclusion must be wrong.
& Inappropriate Analogies
- When poor analogies are used for purpose of
“Making a basketball player in the
- NBA stand for the National anthem is like
- requiring a Jewish kid to eat pork sandwiches in the school cafeteria
- When an argument is based primarily on
- the testimony of an authority
- Credibility of the authority for the
- conclusion is somehow questionable
- not a doctor but I play one on T.V. . .”
- examining this product have said. . . .”
- When a comparison is made or implied
- without providing a specific reference group
n“This bathroom tissue is softer”
n“This product offers faster relief”
- nThese arguments are vague and lack the
- specificity needed for an evaluation.
- Use of information that is impossible to ascertain (information that is not
- incidence of child abuse, rapes, spousal violence, etc.
- variables with a known association or correlation are interpreted as being
- causally related to one another
- the association between number of churches in a town and the number of
- prostitutes in that town is known to be a positive correlation (i.e. the more
- churches, the more prostitutes)
down (Name calling)
- Intentional emotional belittling of the
- opposition or their position
nE.g. “That idea is idiotic!”
Assumption that the status quo is best
- Assumes the way things have always been done
- is best.
- nE.g. “If it ain’t
- broke, don’t fix it”
- nImplies that things could not be better
- than they are.
to change Beliefs (1-5)
- 1.Start with the identification of the
- 2.Identify as many distinct premises as
- possible – T/F/U
3.Identify any ambiguous terms
4.Rate strength of argument
5.Rate emotional tone
to change Beliefs (6-10)
- 1.Identify fallacies by name and premise
- 2.Identify stated and/or unstated
3.Indicate degree of agreement
4.Respond to counterarguments
5. State your opinion
- A specific form of deductive argument
- that follows the format of exactly two premise statements and a single
all, no, some, none
- on the quantifier used and whether the statement is affirmative or negative
•Two possible representations
Some A are B
•Four possible representations
•One possible representation
Some A are not B
- possible representations
- term that applies to all members of a
- category (terms preceded by “no”; “all”; or “none”)
- term used in both the premises but not
- the conclusion (Called the “linking” term)
A is distributed
B is not distributed
A are B
Both A and B are undistributed
Both A and B are distributed
No A are B = No B are A
A are not B
A is undistributed
- is distributed (B is modified by “Not”)
- other words “All B are not A”
- the conclusion is negative, one premise must be negative, and if one premise is
- negative, the conclusion must be negative.
- 1.The middle term must be distributed in at
- least one premise.
- 1.Any term which is distributed in the
- conclusion must be distributed in at least one premise.
Verbal rule 4
- 1.If both premises are particular, there
- are no valid conclusions.
- 1.If one premise is particular, the
- conclusion must be particular.
Verbal rule 6
- 1.At least one premise must be affirmative,
- there are no valid conclusions with two negative premises.
1.Confusing truth with validity
- DOES NOT necessarily mean true!
- a premise is converted into a nonequivalent form.
- All A are B IS
- NOT the
- same as All B are A
- 3.when combinations of quantifiers create
- an expectation about the validity of the conclusion.
- E.g. when one or more premises are negative
- there is a tendency to accept a negative conclusion as valid.
- one’s personal beliefs interfere with the ability to reason logically.
- Sometimes called propositional logic
- because we are reasoning with if-then propositions.
- Propositions take the form of if 1 is
- true then 2 must also be true.
- These statements represent contingency
- “if” part of the statement
- “then” part of the statement
- Argument: the use of one or more
- statements to support a conclusion
- Arguments must have a least one premise
- and one conclusion.
- Primary objective: persuade someone to
- accept a certain proposition or take a certain course of action
- statements that give the reasons for the
- conclusion. These can be factual or opinion.
- be verified as true or false by other credible source
- opinion or preference but then offer support for that opinion
- 2 or more premises each independently
- support the conclusion
- support other premises or the conclusion of one argument becomes premise of
- second argument. NOTE: Argument is only as strong as the weakest link.
- premise independently supports the conclusion
- strong as the weakest link
- Good arguments have acceptable premises
- (premises that are true or believed to be true) that are not contradictory
- Good arguments have premises that offer
- strong support for the conclusion
- Good arguments do not distort or omit
- important considerations (Consider what has not been said)
- When counterarguments are not raised you
- need to construct your own.
Often use tricks of persuasion called fallacies