Psychology 110 Chapter 4-5

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Psychology 110 Chapter 4-5
2013-03-26 21:12:40

Chapter 4 -5
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  1. Association
    • People and/or events occurring closely in
    • time or space are associated.
  2. Argument
    Against the Person

    Also known as “Ad hominem” or “to the
    • Arguments that ignore the issue and
    • instead attacks the person making the argument or a person or group associated
    • with the cause
  3. Appeal
    to Pity

    More specific form of the fallacy -
    Appeal to emotion
    • When tactics are used to encourage pity
    • for some cause

    Used by fund raisers to solicit funds

    • Used
    • by attorneys to elicit pity for clients in attempt to get sentence reduced
  4. Appeal
    to Popularity
    • A technique designed to get someone to
    • take a course of action or agree with some position because so many others do.
  5. Testimonial
    • An attempt to influence through
    • statements made by known or respected individuals
  6. False

    Also known as a Black/White fallacy
    • Simplification
    • of argument that makes it appear that there are only two possible choices
  7. Appeal
    to Pride or Snobbery

    More specific form of the fallacy -
    Appeal to emotion
    • Involves use of praise or flattery to
    • elicit support for conclusion
  8. Card
    Omission of unfavorable information
  9. Circular
    A simple restatement of the conclusion

    • “Voter turn out was low because no one
    • came to the polls.”
  10. Irrelevant

    Sometimes referred to as a nonsequitur.
    • Premises are unrelated to conclusion or
    • conclusion does not follow from the premise(s)

    • “I should be able to build my deck
    • because you have a dog house”
  11. Slippery

    Also known as the fallacy
    of the continuum.

    Describes a domino effect
    • A false argument that says one change
    • will release a whole avalanche of adverse changes.
  12. Straw
    man Argument
    • When
    • a very weak counterargument is presented as the opposition’s entire argument.
  13. Part-whole

    Also called a hasty generalization.
    •  A
    • false argument that says what is true of the parts is also true of the whole

    • Fallacious when the part is
    • uncharacteristic or not representative of the whole

    • One
    • red head has a terrible temper therefore all red heads have bad tempers
  14. Appeal
    to Ignorance
    • A false idea that says because there is
    • no evidence to support a conclusion then the conclusion must be wrong.
  15. Weak
    & Inappropriate Analogies
    •  When poor analogies are used for purpose of
    • persuasion

    “Making a basketball player in the

    •   NBA stand for the National anthem is like
    • requiring a Jewish kid to eat pork sandwiches in the school cafeteria
  16. Appeal
    to Authority
    • When an argument is based primarily on
    • the testimony of an authority

    • Credibility of the authority for the
    • conclusion is somehow questionable

    • n“I’m
    • not a doctor but I play one on T.V. . .”

    • n“Doctors
    • examining this product have said. . . .”
  17. Incomplete
    • When a comparison is made or implied
    • without providing a specific reference group

    n“This bathroom tissue is softer” 

    n“This product offers faster relief”

    • nThese arguments are vague and lack the
    • specificity needed for an evaluation.
  18. Knowing
    the Unknowable
    • Use of information that is impossible to ascertain (information that is not
    • discoverable)

    • nActual
    • incidence of child abuse, rapes, spousal violence, etc.
  19. False
    Cause Argument
    • When
    • variables with a known association or correlation are interpreted as being
    • causally related to one another

    • wCorrelation
    • = causation

    • wE.g.
    • the association between number of churches in a town and the number of
    • prostitutes in that town is known to be a positive correlation (i.e. the more
    • churches, the more prostitutes)
  20. Put
    down (Name calling)
    • Intentional emotional belittling of the
    • opposition or their position

    nE.g. “That idea is idiotic!”
  21. Appeal
    to Tradition
    Assumption that the status quo is best

    •  Assumes the way things have always been done
    • is best.

    • nE.g. “If it ain’t
    • broke, don’t fix it”

    • nImplies that things could not be better
    • than they are.
  22. How
    to change Beliefs (1-5)
    • 1.Start with the identification of the
    • conclusion

    • 2.Identify as many distinct premises as
    • possible – T/F/U

    3.Identify any ambiguous terms

    4.Rate strength of argument

    5.Rate emotional tone
  23. How
    to change Beliefs (6-10)
    • 1.Identify fallacies by name and premise
    • number

    • 2.Identify stated and/or unstated
    • counterarguments

    3.Indicate degree of agreement

    4.Respond to counterarguments

    5. State your opinion
  24. Syllogistic
    • A specific form of deductive argument
    • that follows the format of exactly two premise statements and a single
    • conclusion.
  25. quantifiers
    all, no, some, none
  26. Moods
    • depending
    • on the quantifier used and whether the statement is affirmative or negative
  27. Universal Affirmative
    • (UA):   
    • All
    • A are B

    •Two possible representations
  28. Particular
    Some A are B

    •Four possible representations

  29. Universal
    • No
    • A are B

    •One possible representation
  30. Particular
    Some A are not B

    • •Three
    • possible representations
  31. Distributed
    • term that applies to all members of a
    • category (terms preceded by “no”; “all”; or “none”)
  32. Middle
    • term used in both the premises but not
    • the conclusion (Called the “linking” term)
  33. All A
    are B
    A is distributed

      B is not distributed
  34. Some
    A are B
    Both A and B are undistributed
  35. No A
    are B
    Both A and B are distributed

      No A are B = No B are A
  36. Some
    A are not B
    A is undistributed

    •   B
    • is distributed (B is modified by “Not”)

    •   In
    • other words “All B are not A”
  37. Verbal
    rules 1
    • If
    • the conclusion is negative, one premise must be negative, and if one premise is
    • negative, the conclusion must be negative.
  38. Verbal
    rules 2
    • 1.The middle term must be distributed in at
    • least one premise.
  39. Verbal
    rules 3
    • 1.Any term which is distributed in the
    • conclusion must be distributed in at least one premise.
  40. Verbal rule 4
    • 1.If both premises are particular, there
    • are no valid conclusions.
  41. Verbal
    rule 5
    • 1.If one premise is particular, the
    • conclusion must be particular.
  42. Verbal rule 6
    • 1.At least one premise must be affirmative,
    • there are no valid conclusions with two negative premises.
  43. 1.Confusing truth with validity
    • Valid
    • DOES NOT necessarily mean true!
  44. Illicit
    • when
    • a premise is converted into a nonequivalent form.

    • All A are B   IS
    • NOT the
    • same as    All B are A
  45. Atmosphere
    • 3.when combinations of quantifiers create
    • an expectation about the validity of the conclusion.

    •   E.g. when one or more premises are negative
    • there is a tendency to accept a negative conclusion as valid.
  46. Belief
    • when
    • one’s personal beliefs interfere with the ability to reason logically.
  47. Conditional
    • Sometimes called propositional logic
    • because we are reasoning with if-then propositions.

    • Propositions take the form of if 1 is
    • true then 2 must also be true.

    • These statements represent contingency
    • relationships.
  48. antecedent
    • The
    • “if” part of the statement
  49. consequent
    • The
    • “then” part of the statement
  50. Antecedent

  51. Antecedent

  52. Affirm

  53. Consequent
  54. Argument
    • Argument: the use of one or more
    • statements to support a conclusion

    • Arguments must have a least one premise
    • and one conclusion.

    • Primary objective: persuade someone to
    • accept a certain proposition or take a certain course of action
  55. Premises
    • statements that give the reasons for the
    • conclusion. These can be factual or opinion.
  56. Opinion
    • simple
    • assertion
  57. Fact
    • can
    • be verified as true or false by other credible source
  58. Reasoned
    • nexpress
    • opinion or preference but then offer support for that opinion
  59. Convergent
    • 2 or more premises each independently
    • support the conclusion
  60. Chained
    (linked) structure
    • premises
    • support other premises or the conclusion of one argument becomes premise of
    • second argument. NOTE: Argument is only as strong as the weakest link.
  61. Convergent
    • each
    • premise independently supports the conclusion
  62. Linked
    • as
    • strong as the weakest link
  63. Good argument
    • Good arguments have acceptable premises
    • (premises that are true or believed to be true) that are not contradictory

    • Good arguments have premises that offer
    • strong support for the conclusion

    • Good arguments do not distort or omit
    • important considerations (Consider what has not been said)

    • When counterarguments are not raised you
    • need to construct your own.
  64. Unsound
    Often use tricks of persuasion called fallacies