Conformation, Lameness and Equine Foot

Card Set Information

Author:
kris10leejmu
ID:
209733
Filename:
Conformation, Lameness and Equine Foot
Updated:
2013-03-26 21:23:04
Tags:
Large Animals Four
Folders:

Description:
Large Animals
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user kris10leejmu on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. What are the different structures to the hoof?
    • hoof wall
    • sole
    • frog
    • sulcus
    • bar
    • bulbs
    • heel
    • toe
    • quarter
    • coronary band
    • white line
    • lamina
  2. What is the common name for the distal phalanx?
    P3 or coffin bone
  3. What is the common name for the intermediate or middle phalanx?
    P2 or short pastern
  4. What is the common name for proximal phalanx?
    P1 or long pastern
  5. What is the common name for the distal sesamoid?
    navicular bone
  6. What is the common name for the metacarpal/metatarsal 2?
    medial splint bone
  7. What is the common name for the metacarpal/metatarsal 3?
    cannon bone
  8. What is the common name for the metacarpal/metatarsal 4?
    lateral splint bone
  9. What is the common name for the distal interphalangeal joint?
    coffin joint
  10. What is the common name for the proximal interphalangeal joint?
    pastern joint
  11. What is the common name for the metacarpophalangeal/metatarsophalangeal joint?
    fetlock
  12. What is the coronary band?
    where the hoof and skin meet
  13. What is the lamina?
    on P3 and inside hoof wall and attaches hoof wall to P3
  14. How many row of carpal bones are there?
    3
  15. What is the distal row of carpal bones?  How are they numbered?
    • carpal bone 1, 2, 3, and 4
    • numbered medial to lateral
  16. What are the proximal row of carpal bones from medial to lateral?
    • radial carpal bone
    • intermediate carpal bone
    • ulnar carpal bone
    • accessory carpal bone
  17. What structures are part of the equine tarsus (hock)?
    • tibiotarsal bone - talus
    • central tarsal bone
    • fused 1st and 2nd tarsal bones
    • third tarsal bone
    • fourth tarsal bone
    • calcaneus or tuber calcis
  18. What structures are part of the equine upper extremity?
    • radius
    • ulna
    • humerus
    • scapula
    • scapulohumeral joint
    • elbow joint
    • tibia
    • fibula
    • stifle
    • patella
    • femur
    • coxofemoral joint
  19. What do owners sometimes call the carpus?
    knee
  20. What are the differences between bovine and equine extremities?
    • bovine have P1, P2, P3, distal sesamoids per limb and four proximal sesamoids per limb
    • bovines have fused metacarpal/metatarsal 3 and 4 to make up the cannon bone
  21. What does walk mean?
    four beat gait
  22. What does trot mean?
    two beat gait, diagonals are paired
  23. What does canter mean?
    three beat gait, depends on lead (right lead - left hind, left diagonal, right front...left lead - right hind, right diagonal, left front)
  24. What does gallop mean?
    four beat gait conventionally
  25. What is conformation?
    • defined as the form or outline of an animal
    • seen as the "animals layout"
    • the term balance is often used to describe conformation - parts should typically be balanced or symmetrical
  26. What is the ideal conformation when viewing the front limb from the front?
    a line drawn from the point of the shoulder should bisect the limb all the way to the ground and should be perpendicular to the ground
  27. What is the ideal conformation of the front limb as viewed from the side?
    a line drawn from the acromion should bisect the limb to the level of the fetlock, then strike the ground just behind the heel and should be perpendicular to the ground
  28. What are some front limb conformation faults for the stance of a horse?
    • base narrow
    • base wide
  29. What is the base narrow conformation fault?  Which horses is the most common in?
    • converging limb axis as the lines near the ground
    • commonly seen in horses with well developed chests
  30. What is the base wide conformation fault?  Which horse is this commonly seen in?
    • diverging limb axis as the lines near the ground
    • commonly seen in horses with narrow chests
  31. What are the common front limb rotational conformation faults?
    • toe in (pigeon toed)
    • toe out (splay footed)
  32. What is the toe in conformation fault?
    • inward rotation of the limbs from any point between the shoulder and fetlock
    • tendency to paddle
    • commonly causes fetlock problems
  33. What is the toe out conformation fault?
    • outward rotation of the limbs from any point between the shoulder and fetlock
    • tendency to wind and causes limb interference (especially if combined with base narrow stance)
  34. What are the common front limb angular limb deformities?
    • carpal valgus
    • carpal varus
  35. What is carpal valgus confromation fault?
    • inside physes grow faster
    • more common than varus
    • mild cases may not need treatment
  36. What is the carpal varus conformation fault?
    outside physes grow faster
  37. What are some front limb knee conformation faults?
    • offset knees, bench knees
    • back at the knees
    • over at the knees
  38. What is the offset knees, bench knees conformation fault?
    • lateral deviation of the metacarpal bones
    • increases stress on medial splint any may cause splint formation
  39. What is the back at the knees conformation fault?
    • palmar deviation of the carpus
    • can be a severe problem causing chip fractures of dorsal aspect of carpal bones
  40. What is the over at the knees conformation fault?
    • dorsal deviation of the carpus
    • common in foals and will often disappear with time
  41. What are some common front limb fetlock conformation faults?
    • upright conformation
    • sloped conformation
  42. What is the upright conformation fault?
    • not enough angle as viewed from the side
    • stresses joint with concussion
  43. What is the slope conformation conformation fault?
    • too much angle as viewed from the side
    • stresses flexor tendons and suspensory ligaments
    • may develop with age, otherwise congenital
  44. What is the ideal conformation of the hind limb as viewed from behind?
    a line drawn from the tuber ischii should bisect the limb to the ground
  45. What is the ideal conformation of the hind limb as viewed from the side?
    a line drawn from the tuber ischii should hit the point of the hock, course along the caudal aspect of the metatarsus, and strike the ground about 3 inches behind the heel
  46. What are some hind limb conformation faults?
    • rotational 
    • angular
    • sickle hocks
    • post-legged
  47. What is the rotational hind limb conformation faults?
    • toe out (cow hocks)
    • winging and limb interference may be an issue
  48. What is the angular hind limb conformation fault?
    valgus and varus possible
  49. What is the sickle hocks hind limbs conformation faults?
    too much angle at hocks
  50. What is the post-legged hind limb conformation faults?
    too little angle at the hocks
  51. What is the ideal conformation of the foot?
    • the dorsal surface of the hoof wall should be parallel to the pastern region - i.e. the hoof-pastern axis should match
    • the hoof should be trimmed to match the pastern axis not to an ideal angle
    • foot should be balanced - medial and lateral walls of equal length and both heels contact the ground simultaneously
  52. How fast does the hoof wall grow?
    1/4 - 1/2 inch per month
  53. How often do horses need their hooves cared for?
    every 4 - 8 weeks
  54. What are some foot conformation faults?
    • broken back hoof-pastern axis
    • broken forward hoof-pastern axis
    • under run heels
    • club foot
    • wry foot
    • sheared heels
    • contracted heels
    • flat feet
  55. What is the broken back hoof-pastern axis foot conformation fault?
    • pastern angle is steeper than hoof angle
    • very common due to improper trimming (taking too much heel and leaving too much toe)
    • increases stress on deep digital flexor and navicular structures
  56. What is the broken forward hoof pastern axis foot conformation fault?
    • hoof angle is steeper than pastern angle
    • not as common 
    • flexural deformity may cause, improper trimming too
  57. What is the under run heels foot conformation fault?
    • angle of the heel is appreciably less than the angle of the dorsal hoof wall
    • common and again often due to improper trimming (taking too much heel and leaving too much toe)
  58. What is a predisposition to laminitis?
    having too much toe
  59. What is the club foot conformation fault?
    • very steep hoof angle (>60 degrees)
    • often a result of flexural deformity
  60. What is the wry foot conformation fault?
    • hoof is not centered under the limb
    • most often with medial wall rolled under the lateral wall flared
  61. What is the sheared heels foot conformation fault?
    structural breakdown between the heels due to disproportionate use of one heel
  62. What is the contracted heels conformation fault?
    • hoof wall at the heels is closer than normal
    • frog often atrophied
  63. What is the flat food conformation fault?
    • lack of concavity to the side
    • predisposes to sole bruises, etc
  64. What is stumbling?
    interference with the ground
  65. What is interference?
    interference between opposite limbs anywhere from the carpus or hock down
  66. What is forging?
    interference between bottom of the front foot and the toe of the hind foot
  67. What is over reaching?
    interference between the toe of the hind foot and the bulbs of the heel or back of the shoe
  68. What is scalping?
    interference between the toe of the front foot and the coronary band of the hind foot
  69. What is elbow hitting?
    foot on the same limb strikes the elbow
  70. What are some common foot problems?
    • sole bruises
    • subsolar abscesses
    • deep puncture wounds
    • hoof cracks
    • thrush
    • laminitis
    • navicular disease
  71. What is the goal for routine hoof trimming and shoeing?
    • goal is to maintain appropriate hoof conformation while preventing over growth and offering protection
    • match hoof pastern axis
    • maintain good balance
    • avoid under run heels
    • have the horse keep their shoes on
  72. What is the goal for corrective trimming and shoeing?
    goal is to correct/minimize conformational faults or treat existing pathologic disorders
  73. What is involved in a lameness evaluation?
    • signalment
    • history
    • systematic and routine approach
    • thorough evaluation of the entire patient (complete PE)
    • observation from a distance standing and then in motion
    • observation in motion
    • look for a head bob - up when lame limb is down and down when sound limb is down with a front limb lameness, up when sound limb is down and down when lame limb is down with a rear limb lameness
    • localize the lameness within the limb
  74. How do we localize the lameness within the limb?
    • palpation and manipulation to evaluate for swelling, pain, reduced range of motion
    • hoof testers
    • flexion tests
    • diagnostic anesthesia (nerve blocks, intra-articular administration)
  75. What are some other diagnostic tests we can do for lameness?
    • radiography
    • ultrasonography
    • nuclear scintigraphy
    • thermography
    • computed tomgraphy
    • magnetic resonance imaging

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview