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They have a hard time seeing the issues from a variety of viewpoints.
They believe that their group is not just different, but superior making the motivations and intentions of other groups suspect.
The art of boosting or own egos by speaking about what we want to talk about, and not giving a hoot about what the other person wants to talk about.
My way is better than your way.
Taking a narrow rather than a broad view on problems and issues- tunnel vision
Poverty of Aspect
Conclusions arrives at through examination o evidence and careful reasoning; A product of thinking, unlike feeling (spontaneous/unconscious)
Presenting your view so effectively that people who disagree with you will be motivated to reconsider their own view
What is the difference between oversimplification, unwarranted assumption and hasty conclusion?
- Oversimplification: complex into one pity statement
- Unwarranted Assumption: idea taken for granted but not directly stated
- Hasty Conclusion: a directly stated assumption
What are the 6 criteria for expressing judgments?
- strive for a balanced view
- deal with probability
- make your subject appropriately specific
- make your predicate exact
- include all appropriate qualifications
- avoid exaggeration
What are 6 important distinctions when analyzing arguments?
- the person and the idea
- what is said and how it is said
- why people think as they so and whether what they think is correct
- the individual and the group or class
- matter of preference and matters of judgment
- familiarity and correctness
What are the 11 guidelines for persuasion?
- respect your audience
- understand your audience's viewpoint
- begin from a position in common with the readers
- take a positive approach
- understate your argument whenever possible
- concede where the opposing side has a point
- don't ignore any relevant facts
- focus on the argument best calculated to persuade your audience
- allow time for your view to gain acceptance