gmat reading comprehension

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  1. 7 principles
    • engage with the passage
    • look for the simple story
    • link to what you already know
    • unpack the beginning
    • link to what you have just read
    • pay attention to signals
    • pick up the pace
  2. challengers of reading comprehension
    • demanding content
    • have to read on screen
    • cannot preview all the questions
    • have to read quickly
    • have to stay with it
  3. engage with the passage - 7 principles
    • pretend that you really like this stuff
    • identify good guys and bad guys
    • simply acknowledge that you do not find the passage thrilling
  4. look for the simple story - 7 principle
    • text it to me - how would you retell all this stuff to an intelligent but bored teenager in a couple sentences
    • make a table of contents - use five words or fewer for headline of each paragraph
    • look for content and judgment
    • content: the scientific of historical subject matter of the passage
    • (a) causes (effects, evidence, logical results)
    • (b) processes (steps, means, ends)
    • (c) categories (examples, generalities)
    • judgment: what the author and any other people believe about the content
    • (a) theories and hypotheses
    • (b) evaluations and opinions
    • (c) comparisons and contrasts
    • (d) advantages and disadvantages
    • Don't forget the Twist
  5. Link to what you already know - 7 principle
    concretizing - actively imagine what the words are referring to; re-explains the original text to yourself, visualize what it represents
  6. unpack the beginning - 7 principle
    • unpacking - turn it into a few simple sentences
    • 1. grab a concrete noun first - pick something that you can touch and that causes other things to happen
    • 2. turn actions back into verbs - feel free to start with "there is' or "there was"
    • 3. put only ONE simple thought in a sentence - one subject, one verb
    • 4. link each subsequent sentence to the previous one, using "this" or "these"
    • 5. simplify or "quote off" details
  7. link to what you have just read - 7 principles
    • ask yourself about the meaning and purpose of what you are reading
    • the content/judgment framework from "look for the simple story" can guide you
  8. pay attention to signals - 7 principles
    • paragraph breaks indicate something new
    • signal words indicate relationships to previous text
  9. signal - as for; regarding, in reference to
    focus attention
  10. signal - furthermore; moreover; in addition; as well as; also; likewise; too
    add to previous point
  11. signal - on one hand/on the other hand; while; rather; instead; in contrast; alternatively
    provide contrast
  12. signal - granted; it is true that; certainly; admittedly; despite; although
    provide conceding contrast (author unwillingly agrees)
  13. signal - but; however; even so; all the same; still; that said; nevertheless; nonetheless; yet; otherwise; despite [concession], [assertion]
    provide emphatic contrast (author asserts own position)
  14. signal - in any event; in any case
    dismiss previous point
  15. signal - likewise; in the same way
    point out similarity
  16. signal - first, second, etc.; to begin with; next; finally; again
    structure the discussion
  17. signal - for example ; in particular; for instance
    give example
  18. signal - in general; to a great extent; broadly speaking
  19. signal - in conclusion; in brief; overall; except for; besides
    sum up, perhaps with exception
  20. signal - therefore; thus; as a result; so; accordingly; hence
    indicate logical result
  21. signal - because; since; as; resulting from
    indicate logical cause
  22. signal - in other words; that is; namely; so to speak
    restate for clarity
  23. signal - apparently; at least; can, could, may, might, should; possibly; likely
    hedge or soften position
  24. signal - after all; must, have to; always, never, etc.
    strengthen position
  25. signal - actually; in fact; indeed
    introduce surprise
  26. signal - fortunately; unfortunately; other adverbs; so-called
    reveal author's attitude
  27. pick up the pace - 7 principle
    • go faster after the first paragraph
    • towards the end, only dive into info that is clearly part of the big picture
    • do NOT get lost in details later on in the passage
    • do NOT try to master every bit of content
    • only pay close attention to the following elements later on in the passage:
    • (1) beginnings of paragraphs - the first/second sentence often functions as a topic sentence, indicating the content and/or purpose of the paragraph
    • (2) big surprises or changes in direction
    • (3) big results, answers, or payoffs
  28. components of passages
    • the point
    • background
    • support
    • implications
  29. the point - subj. components of passages
    • most important message of the passage
    • the point is the crux of the simple story
    • point relates to the content/judgment framework
    • related to passage's purpose
    • analogous to the conclusion of an argument (CR)
    • (a) resolution: resolves an issue or a problem
    • (b) answer: answers a question (similar to resolution)
    • (c) new idea: describes a surprising new idea, theory, or research result
    • (d) reason: explains an observation
  30. background - subj. components of passages
    information you need to understand the point
  31. the support - subj. components of passages
    evidence, assertions, and opinion FOR the point
  32. the implications - subj. components of passages
    results from the point
  33. foreshadowing - subj. comp. of passages
    • problem... leads to... resolution
    • question... leads to... answer
    • old idea... leads to... new idea
    • observation.. leads to... reason or new idea
    • not always present but is helpful when it is (find point more quickly and easily)
  34. Tips for Short Passages
    • take notes during the GMAT in order to create comprehension right there and then
    • you should NOT plan to use your notes afterwards very much
    • take notes that allow you to grasp the simple story of the passage
    • should be able to answer all GENERAL questions (main idea, purpose, structure, tone) without referring either to your notes or to the passage
    • use Headline List as a search tool
    • two minutes per RC question
  35. Headline List
    • summarize or indicate the main idea of each paragraph - read first sentence or two of the first paragraph, indicate topic sentence, and sum it concisely on your paper
    • read the rest of the paragraph with an eye for big hidden surprises or results
    • follow the same process for subsequent paragraphs
    • identify the passage's Point
  36. common structures of short passages
    • point - support - (optional implications)
    • background - support - point
    • background - point - support
Card Set:
gmat reading comprehension
2013-05-03 01:43:40
gmat rc

reading comprehension
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