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2013-05-05 22:05:07
Elements Analysis

Elements and Analysis
Show Answers:

  1. What is the study of poisonous substances?
  2. What are the routes of exposure to toxins?
    • Ingestion
    • Inhalation
    • Transdermal
  3. What is the term for the amount of damage done to an organism when the substance is administered at less than the lethal dose?
    Toxic response
  4. What is a one-time exposure of short duration to an agent that immediately causes a toxic response?
    Acute toxicity
  5. What is the term for multiple exposures for extended time periods to an agent at a dosage that will not cause an acute response?
    Chronic toxicity
  6. What type of test is performed first and usually of a qualitative nature and may lack specificity?
    Screening test
  7. What type of test is usually quantitative with good specificity and sensitivity?
    Confirmatory test
  8. What are alcohols considered?
    Volatile organic substances
  9. Name the different types of alchols
    • Ethanol
    • Methanol
    • Isopropanol
    • Ethylene glycol
  10. What clinical condition is associated with ethanol?
    • Toxic hepatitis
    • Cirrhosis
  11. What clinical condition is associated with methanol?
    • Severe acidosis
    • Blindness
    • Death due to methanol conversion to formaldehyde
  12. What clinical condition is associated with isopropanol?
    • Severe and acute symptoms of toxic haptitis and cirrhosis
    • Symptoms persist for a long time because isopropanol is matabolized to acetone - which has a long half life
  13. What clinical condition is associated with ethylene glycol?
    • Severe metabolic acidosis
    • Renal tubular damage
  14. Where is ethylene glycol found?
    In antifreeze
  15. Why is carbon monoxide considered toxic?
    • It binds tightly to hemoglobin and does not allow oxygen to attach to the hemoglobin
    • Forms carboxyhemoglobin
  16. What clinical condition is associated with carbon monoxide?
    Hypoxia in the brain and heart
  17. How does cyanide exposure occur?
    • Oral ingestion
    • Inhalation
    • Transdermal absorption
  18. Where is cyanide used, typically?
    • Insecticide
    • Rodenticide
  19. Why is cyanide considered supertoxic?
    Binds to heme iron and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase
  20. How does aresenic travel in the blood?
    Binds to thiol groups in proteins
  21. How is arsenic excreted?
    Ionized arsenic is excreted in the urine
  22. What specimens are used to assess the level of arsenic poisoning?
    • Short term exposure: Blood and urine
    • Long term exposure: Hair and fingernails
  23. Why is lead considered toxic?
    • Binds to proteins
    • Inhibits many enzymes
    • Inhibits heme synthesis
  24. What lab results are consistent with lead poisoning?
    • Basophili stippling of RBCs
    • Increased urinary excretion of aminolevulinic acid and coproporphyrins
  25. What is the acceptable blood lead level in young children?
    <10 micro-gram/dL
  26. Why is mercury considered toxic?
    • Binds to proteins
    • Inhibits many enzymes
  27. What do organophophate and carbamate insecticides inhibit?
    Inhibit acetylcholinesterase
  28. What is the function of salicylate (aspirin)?
    • Analgesic
    • Antipyretic
    • Anti-inflammatory
  29. What happens at toxic doses of salicylate (aspirin)?
    • Mixed acid-base imbalance seen in metabolic acidosis and respiratory alkalosis (respiratory center stimulant)
    • Ketone body formation
    • Excess formation of lactate
  30. What is the function of acetaminophen (tylenol)?
  31. What is the toxic effect of acetaminophen (tylenol)?
    Liver toxicity
  32. What is the function of amphetamine and methamphetamine?
    • Treat narcolepsy and disorders that affect ability to focus
    • Stimulants
    • Provide a sense of mental and physical well-being
  33. What is the function of anabolic steroids?
    • Increase muscle mass
    • Increase athletic perfomance
  34. What is the function of cannabinoids?
    • Hallucinogenic
    • Provide a feeling of mental well being and euphoria
    • Impair mental function
    • Impair short term memory
  35. What is the primary cannabinoid component of marijuana?
    Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
  36. What is the half life of THC?
    • One day following single use
    • 3-5 days following chronic use
  37. How long is THC detectable in urine?
    • 3-5 days following single use
    • Up to 4 weeks following chronic use
  38. What is the function of cocaine?
    • Local anesthetic
    • CNS stimulant
  39. What is the primary metabolite of cocaine?
  40. When is benzoylecgonine detectable in the urine?
    • 3 days following single use
    • 20 days following chronic use
  41. What are the different types of opiates found?
    • Naturally occurring: opium, morphine, codeine
    • Chemically modified: heroin, dilaudid, oxycodone
    • Synthetic: Demerol, methadone, darvon, talwin, fentanyl
  42. What is the function of opiates?
    • Analgesic
    • Sedative
    • Anesthetic properties
  43. What is associated with opiate use?
    Respiratory acidosis
  44. What is the function of phencyclidine (PCP)?
    • Stimulant
    • Depressant
    • Anesthetic
    • Hallucinogenic effects
  45. When is phencyclidine (PCP) detectable in the urine?
    Up to 7-30 days following chronic use
  46. Name the different types of tranquilizers
    • Barbiturates: Phenobarbital, amobarbital, secobarbital, and pentobarbital
    • Benzodiazepines: Diazepam (valium), chlordiazepoxide, lorazepam
  47. What is the function of tranquilizers?
    Sedative hypnotics that produce depression of the CNS
  48. What is clinical condition is associated with tranquilizers?
    Respiratory acidosis