Midterm II Review

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Midterm II Review
2013-05-08 21:48:58
Anthropology 22

Shamanism through Religion and Society
Show Answers:

  1. Shamanism (contd.)
  2. techniques to induce altered states of consciousness
  3. Define psychotropes.
    Anything ingested to alter consciousness.
  4. Auditory driving is ______ ______.
    rhythmic sound
  5. Rhythmic moving is known as ______ ______.
    kinetic driving
  6. Define sensory overload.
    More sensory input than one is accustomed to.
  7. Define sensory deprivation.
    Less sensory input than one is accustomed to.
  8. Not eating is known as _______.
  9. What is meditation?
    Quiet concentration.
  10. Define possession sickness.
    A spirit makes one sick to call one to be a shaman.
  11. A spirit that helps a shaman is a _____ ______.
    spirit helper
  12. True/False: Most shamans have at least two spirit helpers. If false, why?
    False. Most shamans have one spirit helper.
  13. True/False: When one is speaking an unknown language, they are experiencing xenolalia. If false, why?
    False. They are experiencing glossolalia.
  14. Define xenolalia.
    The belief that one is speaking an actual human language that is unknown to the speaker.
  15. Healing and The Supernatural
  16. Shamans go together with what religious type?
  17. Define prescriber.
    Someone who tell someone what to do.
  18. One who cast out evil spirits is an _______.
  19. What is a spirit medium?
    One through whom a spirit speaks or acts.
  20. True/False: A diviner is one who uses divination. If false, why?
  21. Define divination.
    Finding something hidden by means of the supernatural.
  22. True/False: The future is usually what is found through divination. If false, why?
  23. What is a sorcerer?
    One who does sorcery.
  24. Define sorcery.
    Harming someone supernaturally through spells & paraphernalia.
  25. How do sorcerers heal people?
    By attacking enemy sorcerers who are causing these people to be sick.
  26. One who receives messages from a god is a _______.
  27. Priests use liturgy, or ______ ______, to heal others.
    memorized ritual
  28. Define ethnomedicine.
    The study of health & healing in their cultural context.
  29. native theories of disease
  30. Explain native causes.
    Nu supernatural element.
  31. Mechanical control of the supernatural is ______.
  32. Explain the theory of disease-object intrusion.
    A physical object has entered the body supernaturally and caused the sickness.
  33. The theory that one's soul has left the body is known as _____ ______.
    soul loss
  34. Explain the theory of spirit intrusion.
    A spirit enters the body and causes the sickness.
  35. True/False: Supernatural solutions are always necessary for spirit intrusion. If false, why?
    False. Spirit intrusion sometimes requires natural solutions.
  36. Explain breach of taboo theory.
    Someone does something prohibited and gets sick because of it.
  37. Define voodoo death.
    A person believes they will die & then they die.
  38. What are the two points of view that anthropologists try to understand?
    Etic and emic.
  39. True/False: Emic is the scientific point of view. If false, why?
    False. Etic is the scientific point of view.
  40. What is the emic?
    The point of view from within the culture.
  41. True/False: Etic would only be used by materialists, not interpretivists. If false, why?
  42. aspects of successful healing
  43. What are the four aspects of successful healing?
    • naming process
    • personality of the healer
    • patient's expectations
    • techniques of healing
  44. Explain naming process.
    The healer must be able to name the disease.
  45. Explain personality of the healer.
    Whether or not the healer cares.
  46. Explain the patient's expectations.
    Whether or not the patient expects to be held.
  47. What are two indicators of a patient's expectations?
    • 1. Distance traveled - shows investment
    • 2. Paraphernalia. Healers with more paraphernalia are more successful.
  48. Magic
  49. What are the two main types of magic?
    Imitative magic and contagious magic.
  50. Define imitative magic.
    Magic that operates on the principal that like actions produce like results.
  51. Define contagious magic.
    Magic that operates on the principal that after two things have been in contact, they continue to influence each other.
  52. uses of magic
  53. What are the three uses of magic?
    • Productive magic
    • Protective magic
    • Destructive magic
  54. means of magical manipulation
  55. Something said or sang that gives force to magic is an _______.
  56. True/False: An incantation of destruction is known as a mantra. If false, why?
    False. It is known as a curse.
  57. Define oath.
    An incantation that attests to truth.
  58. What is a mantra?
    A constantly repeated incantation.
  59. Define amulet.
    An object with magical force.
  60. Amulets have ______, which associates them with ________.
    mana; animatism
  61. An object with a spirit that can be controlled is known as a _______.
  62. What are fetishes associated with?
  63. A zombie is a _____ in _______.
    fetish; Haiti
  64. Define sorcery.
    Harming of someone supernaturally through spells and paraphernalia.
  65. True/False: Sorcery is innate, internal, & may be conscious. If false, why?
    False. Sorcery is always learned, external, & deliberate.
  66. Define witchcraft.
    Harming someone supernaturally through psychological processes only.
  67. Witchcraft is ______, _______, & may be ______.
    innate; internal; unconscious
  68. True/False: Sorcery is a position of power, while witchcraft is a position of weakness. If false, why?
  69. What are the three explanations for witchcraft belief?
    • Explanation for misfortune
    • Resolution for social tension
    • Relationship fission
  70. What is meant by resolution for social tension?
    Witchcraft accusation allows bad feelings to be brought out into the open and dealt with.
  71. What is meant by relationship fission?
    Witchcraft accusation allows villages to split that otherwise would not split.
  72. Define evil eye.
    Harming someone supernaturally through envy.
  73. True/False: Anyone can do the evil eye, which can be unintentional. If false, why?
  74. Who is associated with the evil eye?
  75. Define peasants.
    People who grow their own food but are part of a larger economic system in which their surplus of food is taken by the elite.
  76. Who do peasants rely on when they need to be taken care of?
    Other peasants.
  77. Hmong Shamanism
  78. How many souls do Hmong believe people have?
  79. What happens when one of these souls leaves it's body?
    That person can become sick or depressed.
  80. Why are the deceased dressed in special outfits before their funerals?
    These are the outfits they wear while meeting spirits.
  81. What happens if the ritual concerning the deceased is not done correctly?
    Their spirit will return to haunt their family.
  82. True/False: Animals and human soles are closely related. If false, why?
  83. What do the colored seeds entering the hole signify?
    Souls returning home.
  84. What happens to a shaman if he falls during a trance?
    He will die.
  85. What is used to help secure souls to their bodies?
    Strings tied around one's wrist.
  86. Divination
  87. methods of divination
  88. Define omen.
    A natural occurrence believed to have supernatural meaning.
  89. Divination by the stars is known as _______.
  90. Define ordeal.
    The supernatural communicates through exposure to danger.
  91. A _______ _______ is a person through whom a spirit speaks or acts.
    spirit medium
  92. True/False: The terms "dreams" and "visions" are distinct. If false, why?
    False. They are interchangeable.
  93. A type of divination where a specific question is asked are known as an _______.
  94. Semiotics (semiology)
  95. Define semiotics. (2 parts)
    The study of signs and how language works.
  96. Define sign.
    The interplay between signifier and signified.
  97. True/False: That which is stood for is the signifier. If false, why?
    False. That which is stood for is the signified.
  98. What is the signifier?
    That which stands for something.
  99. True/False: Every signified is ultimately a signifier for itself. If false, why?
  100. Define percept.
    Sensual information received.
  101. Define concept.
    What exists in the mind as an idea of something.
  102. The actual thing referred to is known as the ________.
  103. What do some argue about the referent?
    That it does not exist.
  104. trope
  105. Define trope.
    A non-literal use of symbols.
  106. A comparison of two unlike things is known as a ______.
  107. What are metaphors based on?
  108. What is the term for the use of an associated concept for the concept itself?
  109. Metonymy is based on what?
  110. What is metonymy part of?
  111. Define synecdoche.
    Part for whole or whole for part.
  112. What is synecdoche based on?
  113. What us synecdoche part of?
  114. Define irony.
    The real meaning is concealed or contradicted.
  115. What is irony based on?
    Doubling of meaning.
  116. main ways to communicate with the supernatural
  117. What are the main ways to communicate with the supernatural? (5 ways)
    • Prayer
    • Physiological experience
    • Simulation
    • Feasts
    • Sacrifice
  118. What is meant by physiological experience?
    Experiencing the supernatural in the body.
  119. Define simulation.
    Acting out.
  120. Ritual
  121. Define ritual.
    A stylized, symbolic action
  122. True/False: A ritual is a rite.
  123. A ritual a person does alone is known as a _____, while a ritual people do together is known as ________.
    solitary; interpersonal
  124. A ritual done at specific times is known as _____, while one done for a specific purpose is known as _______.
    calendrical; critical
  125. A _____ _____ ritual is one done all by itself, while an _____ ritual is one that's part of another ritual.
    stand alone; embedded
  126. aims of ritual
  127. What are the 5 aims of ritual?
    • technology
    • therapy/antitherapy
    • social control
    • salvation
    • revitalization
  128. Describe technology.
    Control of nature.
  129. Describe therapy/antitherapy.
  130. What is meant by salvation?
    Keeping one away from an unwanted psychological state.
  131. Revitalization is __________.
  132. Rite of Passage
  133. Define rite of passage.
    A ritual that marks a change in status.
  134. What are the three steps contained in a rite of passage?
    • Separation
    • Transition
    • Incorporation
  135. A symbol of separation from...?
    The old status
  136. What happens in the transition stage?
    One is in between statuses and the norms of the status are reinforced.
  137. What sort of symbol is incorporation?
    A symbol of entry into the new status.
  138. Define liminality.
    The condition of being in between statuses.
  139. True/False: Liminality is a danger to society. If false, why?
  140. Rites of License
  141. Define rite of intensification.
    A ritual that increases the feelings of a group about itself.
  142. In a rite of intensification, what happens to the feelings of the individual about being in a group?
    Those feelings are intensified.
  143. An example of this rite of intensification would be a war ____ or _____.
    dance; song
  144. A rite of license can also be known as a rite of _____ and _______.
    rebellion; reversal
  145. What is a rite of rebellion/reversal/license?
    A ritual that gives one permission to do something one normally cannot do, but only during the ritual.
  146. What does the 1st theory of rebellion/reversal/license say? Provide an example.
    This rite reinforces the norms by acting out the opposite. For example, Halloween.
  147. What does the 2nd theory of rebellion/reversal/license say?
    Rites of license prevent oppressed people from overthrowing their oppressors by giving a relief valve.
  148. A feeling of equal unity in a ritual is known as _________.
  149. What is anti-structure?
    The negation of structure that reinforces the structure.
  150. Rituals surrounding death are known as ______ rituals.
  151. True/False: Endocannibalism is the act of eating one's enemies. If false, why?
    False. Endocannibalism is the act of eating one's dead relatives.
  152. True/False: Kuru is a disease found in only two cultures. If false, why?
    False. Kuru is a disease found in only one culture.
  153. What did researchers discover when they found kuru?
    A whole new type of disease.
  154. True/False: Only women and children practice endocannibalism. If false, why?
  155. What is the cause of kuru?
  156. ritual use of drugs
  157. The expectations that one brings to a drug session are known as _____.
  158. The actual circumstances of the drug session are known as _______.
  159. What was the name of the study which compared American and Jamaican associations with marijuana?
    Jamaican Marijuana Study
  160. What four things did Americans associate smoking marijuana with?
    • 1) Not thinking clearly
    • 2) Moving slowly
    • 3) Not wanting to work
    • 4) Being hungry
  161. True/False: Jamaicans associated the opposite traits that Americans listed with smoking marijuana. If false, why?
  162. Define hallucinogen.
    A psychotrope that allows one to perceive things that other people cannot perceive.
  163. The things that are seen within the eye itself or part of neuroprocessing are known as ______ imagery.
  164. True/False: Form constants are entoptic imagery that are always the same. If false, why?
  165. What are the 7 form constants?
    • Radial lines
    • Grid
    • Parallel lines
    • Nesting curves
    • Zigzags
    • Meandering lines
    • Dots
  166. Religion and Society
  167. Philosophy
  168. Define philosophy.
    An explanation for how things work or should work.
  169. Describe Plato's Cave allegory in two parts.
    • The men are chained, facing one wall of the cave
    • They see shadows as reality
  170. What is Plato's Cave an allegory of?
  171. parts of philosophy
  172. One's expectations of how the world works and everything in it is known as ________.
  173. Define ontology.
    Knowing what is real and what is not real.
  174. Knowing a good argument from a bad argument is _______.
  175. Proper behavior is _______.
  176. Define cult (academic).
    Any organized system of belief.
  177. cult institutions
  178. Define individualistic cult.
    Each individual does the ritual for themselves.
  179. An individualistic cult ritual would be a _____ ____, in which an individual searches for a vision that guides one's life.
    vision quest
  180. Define shamanic cult.
    The shaman does rituals for clients.
  181. A ______ cult is one in which everybody does rituals for clients.
  182. True/False: An example of this would be an ancestor cult, a cult which is directed towards ancestor spirits. If false, why?
  183. True/False: A priesthood cult is one in which a priest does rituals for the community. If false, why?
    False. An ecclesiastical cult is one in which a priest does rituals for the community.
  184. evolution of priesthood
  185. What are the two other steps leading up to priesthood?
    • Ghost cult
    • Ancestor cult
  186. Define ghost cult.
    A cult directed towards preventing dead relatives from harming the community.
  187. Define ancestor cult.
    Looking towards dead relatives to get them to look after the community as they did in their life.
  188. Define priesthood.
    Priests doing rituals for the community.
  189. What are the characteristics of priesthoods/priests? (5 characteristics)
    • Liturgy
    • Calendrical ritual
    • Community rights in public
    • Related to high gods
    • No fee for each service.