a distinctive subgroup of society that self-selects on the basis of a shared commitment to a particular product, class, brand, or consumption activity
Factors determining a reference groups influence on a consumer
Personal sales strategies
Word of Mouth individuals sharing information withother invdividuals in a verbal form, including face to face, phone, and the Internet.
the exponential expansion of WOM. it happens when "words spreads like wildfire" with no or limited mass media advertising supporting it.
characteristic of opinion leaders is greater long-term involvement with the product category than the non-opinion leaders of the group. endruing involvement and it leads to enhanced knowledge about and experience with the product category or activity.
Both initiate dicussions with others about products and shopping, and respond to requests for market information. in essence are a special type of opinion leader
Characteristics of high involvement purchase situation
Consumer goes in search of a product and activitly seeking the product.
Dynamically continuous innovation
individual consumers presumably go through a series of distinct steps or stages known as the adoption process which purchasing innovation.
the manner in which innovations spread throughout a market. "spread" refers to purchase behaviorin which the product is purchased with some degree of regularity.
potential obstacles to rapid market acceptance.
Factors affecting the spread of innovation
venturesome risk takers. Capapble of absorbing the financial and social costs of adopting an unsuccessful product.
locally oriented and engage in limited social interaction. They tend to be relatively domatic and oriented toward the past. Laggards adopt innovations only with reluctance.
a series of activities by which stimuli are perceived, transformed into information, and stored.
the emotional or feeling response triggered by a stimulus such as an ad.
a process whereby stimuli are placed into existing categories of meaning.
continual repeition of a piece of information in order to hold it in current memory for use in problem solving or transferal to longer-term memory.
the use of previously stored experiences, values, attitudes, beliefs, and feelings to interpret and evaluate information in working memory as well as to add relevant previously stored information.
Two important long-term memory structures
semantic memory the basic knowledge and feelings an individual has about a concept
episodic memorythe memory of asequence of events in which a person participated
Key ways accessibility of information stored in long-term memory can be enhanced
What do they call the accessibility effect for brands?