Ecology- Biology

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Ecology- Biology
2010-05-27 21:32:59
Ecology Biology

Ecology Unit of Biology
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  1. Behavior that has a genetic basis and does not need to be taught
    Innate behavior
  2. Automatic response to a stimulus
  3. Instinctual response that occurs when an organism is threatened. The body prepares the organism to stay & fight or flee.
    Fight-or-flight response
  4. Ways of attracting mates through sounds, sight or smell
    Courtship behavior
  5. Behavior that allows animals to occupy & dominate a specific area
  6. Helps to prevent some animals from using limited resources. Often involves a specific area or territory.
    Agressive behavior
  7. Social structure among a group of animals in which one is dominant and the others have subordinate positions.
    Dominance hierarchy
  8. Daily/24 hour cycles. (Sleep cycle)
    Circaduan rhythms
  9. Seasonal cycles that involves movement of animals from one area to another.
  10. A state of inactivitiy in animals, with lower body temperature, slower breathing, and lower metabolic rte which conserves energy.
  11. Similar to hibernation, but during the months of the summer.
  12. The response of an organism moving away or towards something
  13. Must be observed or taught to acquire the behavior.
    Learned behavior
  14. Learning to ignore a stimulus
  15. A complex response that is a combination of iinate and learned behaviors.
  16. Forces and influences that drive an individual to achieve certain goals
  17. Act of associating one stimulus with another
  18. Most complex learned bahavior. Ability to problem solve or to perform a correct or appropriate behavior the first tim the animal is exposed to a situation.
  19. Passing of information from one organism to another with sight, sound touch or chemical sigal (phenomes)
    Communicationa nd Language
  20. arning to behave through repeated practice in order to receive a reward or avoid a punishment.
  21. he study of interactions among organisms and with their environment.
  22. refers to the parts of the earth where you will find life
  23. Living
  24. Non-living
  25. Group of organisms so similar that they can breed and produce fertile offspring
  26. Group of individuals in the same species that live in the same area.
  27. Different populations living in the same area.
  28. Collection of organisms (biotic) in a particular area and the non living parts of their environment
  29. What are the 3 methods field ecologists use to study organisms?
    Observation, experimentation, modeling
  30. Organisms attempt to use the SAME resources
  31. One organism HUNTS and PREYS on another
  32. Two species living closely with each other
  33. What are 3 examples of symbiotic relationships?
    Mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism.
  34. both species benefit from the relationship
  35. one species benefits, and the other is not affected.
  36. One species benefits and the other is harmed
  37. Organisms that produce their own food (producers)
  38. Organisms that eat other things to obtain energy (consumers)
  39. Organisms that eat plants
  40. Organisms that eat animals
  41. Organisms that eat both plants and animals
  42. Organisms that break down dead things to obtain energy
  43. A series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
    food chain or web
  44. What do arrows in a food web represent?
    The direction of energy flow
  45. Each level ina food web. It begins with the producers and works up to the top level consumers.
    trophic level.
  46. How much energy is passed between each trophic level?
  47. What happenes to the energy that is not passed on to the next trophic level.
    It is used to sustain the organisms within the trophic level and is lost to the environment as heat.
  48. Typically there are only four trophic levels. What are these four levels starting with the largest (bottom)?
    Producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers.
  49. Knowing that matter is recycled, explain how carbon is recycled during photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
    The carbon from carbon dioxide is used ot make glucose during photosynthesis. During cellular respiration, the carbon in glucose is used to make carbon dioxide.
  50. Due in part to the disrution of the carbon cycle. CO2, methane, water vapor and other gases trap heat in the atmosphere resulting in the surface of the Earth being warmer. Heat from the sun passes through the atmosphere, hits the Earth, is radiated back into the atmosphere but cannot all escape to space.
    Greenhouse effect
  51. What has the greenhouse effect led to?
    Global warming
  52. What are four factors that affect population size?
    Births, deaths, immigration (moving in), and emigration (moving out)
  53. Factors that affect all populations regardless of population size (ex: floods)
    density independent factors
  54. Factors that affect the population size when the population density reaches a certain level (Ex: competition, disease)
    density dependent factors
  55. Individuals reproduce at a constant rate and there are no limits on population growth
    exponential growth
  56. A populations growth stops or slows after a period of exponential growht; there are limits plces on the growth of the population.
    Logistic growth
  57. maximum number of species in the population that the environment that the environment can support.
    Carry capacity.
  58. Shows males versus females and how many individuals are alive at specific age ranges.
    Age structure diagram
  59. What does the age-structure diagram of an underdeveloped country look like?
    More life a pyramid with a large base and not many individuals living to older ages.
  60. Concentration of a polluatant in organisms increases as the pollutant moves through the levels of a food chain.
    Biological magnification.